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The development of technologies for encoding, storing, communicating, and exploiting information is a major feature in the history of the human species. Although this development has generally progressed smoothly over time, we feel it is valuable to identify three significant points of rapid change or “paradigm shifts.” The first and possibly most revolutionary change was the invention of writing and its companion, literacy—the transition from an oral to a writing culture. The second was the invention of the printing press—the transition from hand-writing to the print culture. We are now in the midst of a third transition to an electronic or digital culture. This paper explores these three paradigm shifts.

Introduction

The development of technologies for encoding, storing, communicating, and exploiting information is a majorfeature in the history of the human species. Although this development has generally progressed smoothly over time, we feel itis valuable to identify three significant points of rapid change or “paradigm shifts.” The first and possibly most revolutionary changewas the invention of writing and its companion, literacy—the transition from an oral to a writing culture. The second was theinvention of the printing press—the transition from hand-writing to the print culture.

We are now in the midst of a third transition to an electronic or digital culture. A convergence of severaltechnologies has created new systems for dealing with information that are potentially as revolutionary as the development ofliteracy and the invention of the printing press. The base for this transition was established in the 1940s with the invention of thedigital computer and the development of information theory. It was empowered by the invention of the transistor and integrated circuitand has blossomed thanks to the connectivity provided by the Internet and wireless technology and the storage provided bysemiconductor, hard disk, and optical memory. The ever-increasing power of computer and communications hardware has been accompaniedby ever more powerful software in the form of computer languages, operating systems, communication protocols, and searchtechnologies.

It may be that most people feel they live in a time of major change, but history reveals that few actually do. Onepurpose of this paper is to examine earlier transitions in order to establish that we are indeed currently in another paradigm shift. Asecond purpose is to challenge the usual pattern of discovering after the fact that something big has happened and then determininghow to mitigate the damage or inefficiencies that seem inevitably to ensue from major change and how to take advantage of the newopportunities and capabilities that are opened. For example, literacy was first an improvement and extension of the oraltradition; it subsequently created completely new systems for human uses of information. The printing press was first an improvement onthe hand-written method of producing books; it then transformed the entire literate world and extended it to the masses. Today, theinformation age has produced a setting in which new information systems will transform not only the way we develop and exploitinformation, but also the way we interact with each other.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, "pan" and literacy for trinidad and tobago teachers. OpenStax CNX. Mar 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10460/1.14
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