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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Discuss the role of transcription factors in gene regulation
  • Explain how enhancers and repressors regulate gene expression

Like prokaryotic cells, the transcription of genes in eukaryotes requires the actions of an RNA polymerase to bind to a sequence upstream of a gene to initiate transcription. However, unlike prokaryotic cells, the eukaryotic RNA polymerase requires other proteins, or transcription factors, to facilitate transcription initiation. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to the promoter sequence and other regulatory sequences to control the transcription of the target gene. RNA polymerase by itself cannot initiate transcription in eukaryotic cells. Transcription factors must bind to the promoter region first and recruit RNA polymerase to the site for transcription to be established.

View the process of transcription—the making of RNA from a DNA template—at this site .

The promoter and the transcription machinery

Genes are organized to make the control of gene expression easier. The promoter region is immediately upstream of the coding sequence. This region can be short (only a few nucleotides in length) or quite long (hundreds of nucleotides long). The longer the promoter, the more available space for proteins to bind. This also adds more control to the transcription process. The length of the promoter is gene-specific and can differ dramatically between genes. Consequently, the level of control of gene expression can also differ quite dramatically between genes. The purpose of the promoter is to bind transcription factors that control the initiation of transcription.

Within the promoter region, just upstream of the transcriptional start site, resides the TATA box. This box is simply a repeat of thymine and adenine dinucleotides (literally, TATA repeats). RNA polymerase binds to the transcription initiation complex, allowing transcription to occur. To initiate transcription, a transcription factor (TFIID) is the first to bind to the TATA box. Binding of TFIID recruits other transcription factors, including TFIIB, TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH to the TATA box. Once this complex is assembled, RNA polymerase can bind to its upstream sequence. When bound along with the transcription factors, RNA polymerase is phosphorylated. This releases part of the protein from the DNA to activate the transcription initiation complex and places RNA polymerase in the correct orientation to begin transcription; DNA-bending protein brings the enhancer, which can be quite a distance from the gene, in contact with transcription factors and mediator proteins ( [link] ).

Eukaryotic gene expression is controlled by a promoter immediately adjacent to the gene, and an enhancer far upstream. The DNA folds over itself, bringing the enhancer next to the promoter. Transcription factors and mediator proteins are sandwiched between the promoter and the enhancer. Short DNA sequences within the enhancer called distal control elements bind activators, which in turn bind transcription factors and mediator proteins bound to the promoter. RNA polymerase binds the complex, allowing transcription to begin. Different genes have enhancers with different distal control elements, allowing differential regulation of transcription.
An enhancer is a DNA sequence that promotes transcription. Each enhancer is made up of short DNA sequences called distal control elements. Activators bound to the distal control elements interact with mediator proteins and transcription factors. Two different genes may have the same promoter but different distal control elements, enabling differential gene expression.

In addition to the general transcription factors, other transcription factors can bind to the promoter to regulate gene transcription. These transcription factors bind to the promoters of a specific set of genes. They are not general transcription factors that bind to every promoter complex, but are recruited to a specific sequence on the promoter of a specific gene. There are hundreds of transcription factors in a cell that each bind specifically to a particular DNA sequence motif. When transcription factors bind to the promoter just upstream of the encoded gene, it is referred to as a cis -acting element    , because it is on the same chromosome just next to the gene. The region that a particular transcription factor binds to is called the transcription factor binding site    . Transcription factors respond to environmental stimuli that cause the proteins to find their binding sites and initiate transcription of the gene that is needed.

Enhancers and transcription

In some eukaryotic genes, there are regions that help increase or enhance transcription. These regions, called enhancers , are not necessarily close to the genes they enhance. They can be located upstream of a gene, within the coding region of the gene, downstream of a gene, or may be thousands of nucleotides away.

Enhancer regions are binding sequences, or sites, for transcription factors. When a DNA-bending protein binds, the shape of the DNA changes ( [link] ). This shape change allows for the interaction of the activators bound to the enhancers with the transcription factors bound to the promoter region and the RNA polymerase. Whereas DNA is generally depicted as a straight line in two dimensions, it is actually a three-dimensional object. Therefore, a nucleotide sequence thousands of nucleotides away can fold over and interact with a specific promoter.

Turning genes off: transcriptional repressors

Like prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells also have mechanisms to prevent transcription. Transcriptional repressors can bind to promoter or enhancer regions and block transcription. Like the transcriptional activators, repressors respond to external stimuli to prevent the binding of activating transcription factors.

Section summary

To start transcription, general transcription factors, such as TFIID, TFIIH, and others, must first bind to the TATA box and recruit RNA polymerase to that location. The binding of additional regulatory transcription factors to cis -acting elements will either increase or prevent transcription. In addition to promoter sequences, enhancer regions help augment transcription. Enhancers can be upstream, downstream, within a gene itself, or on other chromosomes. Transcription factors bind to enhancer regions to increase or prevent transcription.

Questions & Answers

there are 3 trimester in human pregnancy
ROHIN Reply
I don't know answer of this question can u help me
ROHIN
yes
Bisa
what is a cell
Fatima Reply
what is genetic
Janet Reply
I join
Janet
what are the branchas of biology
Prisca Reply
zoology, ecology
Millicent
biochemistry,cytology,herpetology...etc
R0se
genetics, microbiology,botany and embryology
Muhammad
what is a cell
Kulunbawi Reply
cell is smallest unit of life. cells are often cell the building blocks of life...
Muhammad
the first twenty element
Orapinega Reply
what are the characteristics of living things?
R0se
growth,respiration,nutrition,sensitivity, movement,irritability, excretion,death.
Obinna
What is the difference between adaptation and competition in animals
Adeyemi Reply
What is biology
Adeyemi
it is a natural science stadey about living things
Zamiil
Biology is the bronch of science which deals with the study of life is called biology
Aziz
what is the x in 300 stands for?
Ogbudu Reply
the properties of life
Clarinda Reply
response to the environment, reproduction, homeostasis, growth,energy processing etc.....
Pushpam
hello.
Daniela
hi
MacPeter
Good
Thomas
what is reproduction
Tims
Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life,each individual organism exist as a result of re production.....or else Multiplying...
R0se
a complete virus particle known as
Darlington Reply
These are formed from identical protein subunitscalled capsomeres.
Pushpam
fabace family plant name
Pushpam Reply
in eukaryotes ...protein channel name which transport protein ...
Pushpam Reply
in bacteria ...chromosomal dna duplicate structure called
Pushpam
what is a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell
Matilda Reply
There are two types of cells. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles (little organs within that cell). They do however carry genetic material but it's not maintained in the nucleus. Prokaryotic cells are also one celled.
juanita
Prokaryotic cells are one celled (single celled).
juanita
Prokaryotic cells are Bacteria and Archea
juanita
Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells.
juanita
Eukaryotic cells are more complex. They are much bigger than Prokaryotic cells.
juanita
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
juanita
Eukaryotic cells are animals cells which also includes us.
juanita
Eukaryotic cells are also multicellular.
juanita
nice explaination
Amna
eukaryotic cells are individual cells .. but eukaryotes are multicellular organisms which consist of many different types of eukaryotic cells
Will
also eukaryotic cells have mitochondria. prokaryotic cells do not
Will
Good
John
in prokaryotes only ribosomes are present... in eukaryotes mitochondria ...glogi bodies ..epidermis .....prokaryotes one envelop but eukaryotes compartment envelop....envelop mean membrane bound organelles......
Pushpam
prokaryotic cell are cells dat have no true nuclei i.e no cell membrane while eukaryotic cell are cell dat have true nuclei i.e have cell membrane
Divine
grt
Thomas
we have 46 pair of somatic cell and 23 pair of chromosomes in our body, pls can someone explain it to me. pls
Matilda Reply
we have 22 pairs of somatic chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosome
Amna
thanks
Matilda
we have 23 pairs of chromosomes,22 pairs of somatic and one pair of sex chromosomes
Amna
23 chromosomes from dad & 23 chromosomes from mom 23 +23=46 total chromosomes
juanita
X & Y chromosomes are called sex cells, the very presence of a Y chromosome means the person is Male.
juanita
XX Female XY Male
juanita
If a Karyotype has more than 46 Chromosomes then nondisjunction occured. For example, having an extra chromosome 21 will cause Down Syndrome.
juanita
in mammal state the different vertebrae and their location in the body
Igbinigie Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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