Ch 01 The Cranial Nerves and the Circle of Willis


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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Ch 01 The Cranial Nerves and the Circle of
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6 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Ch 01 The Cranial Nerves and the Circle of Willis Quiz

Question: If the optic nerve (II) or olfactory tract is interrupted, will it regenerate?


No, will not regenerate.

Yes, will regenerate.

Question: What lies directly above the tentorium?


A. The parietal lobes.

B. The temporal lobes.

C. The occipital lobes.

D. The frontal lobes.

E. The cerebellum.

Question: What brain stem region lies or sits in the tentorial notch (incisure)?


A. Pons.

B. Cerebellum.

C. Temporal lobes.

D. Midbrain.

E. Hypothalamus.

Question: What is the name of the sensory ganglion that is located in the temporal bone where the arrow is pointing?


A. Otic ganglion.

B. Pterygopalatine ganglion.

C. Submandibular ganglion

D. Geniculate ganglion

Question: What cells form the myelin sheaths around the axons in CN II and VIII?


A. Astrocytes and Schwann cells, respectively

B. Ependymal cells and Schwann cells, respectively.

C. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, respectively.

D. Oligodendrocytes and fibroblasts, respectively.

E. Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, respectively.

Question: What are the major structural differences between dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and autonomic ganglia?


A. The DRG contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons whereas the sympathetic ganglia contain the synaptic junctions between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons.

B. One is derived from neural crest and the other from neural tube.

C. Both have synapses.

D. One belongs to the CNS and the other belongs to the PNS.

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as medical advice
Source:  Stephen C. Voron, M.D., Suzanne S. Stensaas, Ph.D. , Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah, School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132,
Darlene Paliswat
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