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Learning objectives

  • Describe the unique features of each category of high G+C and low G+C gram-positive bacteria
  • Identify similarities and differences between high G+C and low G+C bacterial groups
  • Give an example of a bacterium of high G+C and low G+C group commonly associated with each category

Prokaryotes are identified as gram-positive if they have a multiple layer matrix of peptidoglycan forming the cell wall. Crystal violet, the primary stain of the Gram stain procedure, is readily retained and stabilized within this matrix, causing gram-positive prokaryotes to appear purple under a brightfield microscope after Gram staining. For many years, the retention of Gram stain was one of the main criteria used to classify prokaryotes, even though some prokaryotes did not readily stain with either the primary or secondary stains used in the Gram stain procedure.

Advances in nucleic acid biochemistry have revealed additional characteristics that can be used to classify gram-positive prokaryotes, namely the guanine to cytosine ratios (G+C) in DNA and the composition of 16S rRNA subunits. Microbiologists currently recognize two distinct groups of gram-positive, or weakly staining gram-positive, prokaryotes. The class Actinobacteria comprises the high G+C gram-positive bacteria , which have more than 50% guanine and cytosine nucleotides in their DNA. The class Bacilli comprises low G+C gram-positive bacteria , which have less than 50% of guanine and cytosine nucleotides in their DNA.

Actinobacteria: high g+c gram-positive bacteria

The name Actinobacteria comes from the Greek words for rays and small rod , but Actinobacteria are very diverse. Their microscopic appearance can range from thin filamentous branching rods to coccobacilli. Some Actinobacteria are very large and complex, whereas others are among the smallest independently living organisms. Most Actinobacteria live in the soil, but some are aquatic. The vast majority are aerobic. One distinctive feature of this group is the presence of several different peptidoglycans in the cell wall.

The genus Actinomyces is a much studied representative of Actinobacteria. Actinomyces spp. play an important role in soil ecology, and some species are human pathogens. A number of Actinomyces spp. inhabit the human mouth and are opportunistic pathogens, causing infectious diseases like periodontitis (inflammation of the gums) and oral abscesses. The species A. israelii is an anaerobe notorious for causing endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart) ( [link] ).

a) A micrograph of branched cells. B) A micrograph of cells arranged in a V-shape – these are labeled palisades. C) A micrograph of corn-flake shaped cells with a nucleus. Smaller cells outside of these are identified with an arrow.
(a) Actinomyces israelii (false-color scanning electron micrograph [SEM]) has a branched structure. (b) Corynebacterium diphtheria causes the deadly disease diphtheria. Note the distinctive palisades. (c) The gram-variable bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis causes bacterial vaginosis in women. This micrograph shows a Pap smear from a woman with vaginosis. (credit a: modification of work by “GrahamColm”/Wikimedia Commons; credit b: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; credit c: modification of work by Mwakigonja AR, Torres LM, Mwakyoma HA, Kaaya EE)

Questions & Answers

what are granulocytes
Shawnitta Reply
suitable example for prokaryotes
Suvetha Reply
one of the possible early sources of energy was
Suvetha
uv radiation and lighting
Anisha
which is the specific virus causing typhoid
Jeremiah Reply
it's caused by a virulent bacteria called Salmonella Typhi
Sarah
write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
a 28 years old woman come to your clinic with complain of fever painful genital blisters which express clear fluid when ruptured burning sensation around the bristers what is the diagnosis?
Ramadhani Reply
genital herpes caused by a virus called herpe simplex virus
Doris
what is the reference between selective medium and differential medium?
Tony Reply
the micro flora of air is transient why
Princess
Hello.... Am new here
essien Reply
welcome essien
Muhammad
welcome essien
Beka
I'm new here
kumeiwoe
Welcome Macpue!😊
prosper
classification of gram positive
lissa Reply
classify gram positive
lissa
catalase test is done to differentiate between staph and strep. as staph is catalase positive while strep is catalase negative then staph is differentiate further on coagulase positive and coagulase negative. staph aureus is coagulase positive while staph epidermidis is coagulase negative.
Muhammad
gram positive staph is further differentiated on sensitivity test and manitol salt fermentation test while gram positive strep is differentiated on hemolysis pattern
Muhammad
more about gramm positive
lissa
please
lissa
ok
Blessing
am back any gist
Blessing
taxonomy
Rahul
can i use the graph of bacterial growth for my master's thesis?
Christoph Reply
facultative anaerobic bavteria gives uniform turdibity in nutrient broth why?
Princess Reply
oils and waxes are not sterilized in autoclave
Princess
what is the function of paraffin
Muhammad
@ MAHI because they can grow all over the media from surface to the bottom as they can utilize oxygen or conduct fermentation in its absence.
Online
2.@MAHI Autoclave uses steam under pressure. The steam cannot penetrate through oil and wax. Thus, dry heat sterilization is preferred than autoclave .
Online
thnku
Nadiya
how nutirent agar can converted into blood agar
Princess
thank you
Princess
take a nutrient agar ........and add 5ml blood and put in it ...........!
Nadiya
nutrient agar +blood 5ml+ distilled water =blood agar .
Nadiya
mixed wellllll
Nadiya
hi
Rahul
why agar is not a neutrient source?
Shimul
because it's a general purpose agar only use for growing bacteria
Richa
way is antigen
opaleye
what is antigen
opaleye
antigen is a foreign body that cause activation of antibody?
ASNAKE
Antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Shimul
thanks for that
opaleye
what is pharmacology
Luyenu
a science that studies about the drug
ASNAKE
hello ever one
Sayid
y
Abdul
Work hard
Anigor
y
Abdul
thanks alot
Luyenu
What is the major different between gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Asikur
bacteria kya hai
Mala
content of their cell wall
Doris
koi mujhse basic microbiology ki study k Lea book suggest kro .
Richa
Harley prescott
Vikas
what are the five predisposing factors of opportunistic infections
Asher Reply
1. long term exposure to diseases, that the body immunity weakens.
prosper
2. Nature Of some diseases to weaken body immunity such as, AIDS.
prosper
3. Use of immuno-suppresive drugs.
prosper
anyone... need a hand here 🙋😞
prosper
Low immune is the major cause eg for kaposis sarcoma
Davismith
suitable conditions e.g temp,
Muhammad
what os gnormal flora
kifayat Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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