# 3.4 Composition of functions  (Page 6/9)

 Page 6 / 9

## Finding the domain of a composite function involving radicals

Find the domain of

Because we cannot take the square root of a negative number, the domain of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,3\right].\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Now we check the domain of the composite function

The domain of this function is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,5\right].\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ To find the domain of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\circ g,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ we ask ourselves if there are any further restrictions offered by the domain of the composite function. The answer is no, since $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,3\right]\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is a proper subset of the domain of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\circ g.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ This means the domain of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\circ g\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is the same as the domain of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ namely, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,3\right].$

Find the domain of

$\left[-4,0\right)\cup \left(0,\infty \right)$

## Decomposing a composite function into its component functions

In some cases, it is necessary to decompose a complicated function. In other words, we can write it as a composition of two simpler functions. There may be more than one way to decompose a composite function , so we may choose the decomposition that appears to be most expedient.

## Decomposing a function

Write $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\sqrt{5-{x}^{2}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as the composition of two functions.

We are looking for two functions, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}h,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ so $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=g\left(h\left(x\right)\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ To do this, we look for a function inside a function in the formula for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ As one possibility, we might notice that the expression $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}5-{x}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is the inside of the square root. We could then decompose the function as

We can check our answer by recomposing the functions.

$g\left(h\left(x\right)\right)=g\left(5-{x}^{2}\right)=\sqrt{5-{x}^{2}}$

Write $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{4}{3-\sqrt{4+{x}^{2}}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as the composition of two functions.

$\begin{array}{l}g\left(x\right)=\sqrt{4+{x}^{2}}\\ h\left(x\right)=\frac{4}{3-x}\\ f=h\circ g\end{array}$

Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with composite functions.

## Key equation

 Composite function $\left(f\circ g\right)\left(x\right)=f\left(g\left(x\right)\right)$

## Key concepts

• We can perform algebraic operations on functions. See [link] .
• When functions are combined, the output of the first (inner) function becomes the input of the second (outer) function.
• The function produced by combining two functions is a composite function. See [link] and [link] .
• The order of function composition must be considered when interpreting the meaning of composite functions. See [link] .
• A composite function can be evaluated by evaluating the inner function using the given input value and then evaluating the outer function taking as its input the output of the inner function.
• A composite function can be evaluated from a table. See [link] .
• A composite function can be evaluated from a graph. See [link] .
• A composite function can be evaluated from a formula. See [link] .
• The domain of a composite function consists of those inputs in the domain of the inner function that correspond to outputs of the inner function that are in the domain of the outer function. See [link] and [link] .
• Just as functions can be combined to form a composite function, composite functions can be decomposed into simpler functions.
• Functions can often be decomposed in more than one way. See [link] .

## Verbal

How does one find the domain of the quotient of two functions, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{f}{g}?\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$

Find the numbers that make the function in the denominator $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ equal to zero, and check for any other domain restrictions on $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ such as an even-indexed root or zeros in the denominator.

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Shemmy
Reciprocal is a pair of numbers that, when multiplied together, equal to 1. Example; the reciprocal of 3 is ⅓, because 3 multiplied by ⅓ is equal to 1
Jeza
each term in a sequence below is five times the previous term what is the eighth term in the sequence
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cr
root under 3-root under 2 by 5 y square
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why two x + seven is equal to nineteen.
The numbers cannot be combined with the x
Othman
2x + 7 =19
humberto
2x +7=19. 2x=19 - 7 2x=12 x=6
Yvonne
because x is 6
SAIDI
what is the best practice that will address the issue on this topic? anyone who can help me. i'm working on my action research.
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give the complete question
Shanky
4x=3-2 4x=1 x=1+4 x=5 5x
Olaiya
hi can you give another equation I'd like to solve it
Daniel
what is the value of x in 4x-2+3
Olaiya
if 4x-2+3 = 0 then 4x = 2-3 4x = -1 x = -(1÷4) is the answer.
Jacob
4x-2+3 4x=-3+2 4×=-1 4×/4=-1/4
LUTHO
then x=-1/4
LUTHO
4x-2+3 4x=-3+2 4x=-1 4x÷4=-1÷4 x=-1÷4
LUTHO
A research student is working with a culture of bacteria that doubles in size every twenty minutes. The initial population count was  1350  bacteria. Rounding to five significant digits, write an exponential equation representing this situation. To the nearest whole number, what is the population size after  3  hours?
f(x)= 1350. 2^(t/20); where t is in hours.
Merkeb