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Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. (credit "background": modification of work by Nattachai Noogure; credit "top left": modification of work by U.S. Navy; credit "top middle-left": modification of work by Peter Shanks; credit "top middle-right": modification of work by "devinf"/Flickr; credit "top right": modification of work by Alejandra Quintero Sinisterra; credit "bottom left": modification of work by Gabriel Rocha; credit "bottom middle-left": modification of work by Caleb Roenigk; credit "bottom middle-right": modification of work by Staffan Scherz; credit "bottom right": modification of work by Czech Provincial Reconstruction Team)

Clive Wearing is an accomplished musician who lost his ability to form new memories when he became sick at the age of 46. While he can remember how to play the piano perfectly, he cannot remember what he ate for breakfast just an hour ago (Sacks, 2007). James Wannerton experiences a taste sensation that is associated with the sound of words. His former girlfriend’s name tastes like rhubarb (Mundasad, 2013). John Nash is a brilliant mathematician and Nobel Prize winner. However, while he was a professor at MIT, he would tell people that the New York Times contained coded messages from extraterrestrial beings that were intended for him. He also began to hear voices and became suspicious of the people around him. Soon thereafter, Nash was diagnosed with schizophrenia and admitted to a state-run mental institution (O’Connor&Robertson, 2002). Nash was the subject of the 2001 movie A Beautiful Mind . Why did these people have these experiences? How does the human brain work? And what is the connection between the brain’s internal processes and people’s external behaviors? This textbook will introduce you to various ways that the field of psychology has explored these questions.

References

American Board of Forensic Psychology. (2014). Brochure . Retrieved from http://www.abfp.com/brochure.asp

American Psychological Association. (2014). Retrieved from www.apa.org

American Psychological Association. (2014). Graduate training and career possibilities in exercise and sport psychology. Retrieved from http://www.apadivisions.org/division-47/about/resources/training.aspx?item=1

American Psychological Association. (2011). Psychology as a career. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/education/undergrad/psych-career.aspx

Ashliman, D. L. (2001). Cupid and Psyche. In Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology. Retrieved from http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/cupid.html

Betancourt, H.,&López, S. R. (1993). The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. American Psychologist , 48 , 629–637.

Black, S. R., Spence, S. A.,&Omari, S. R. (2004). Contributions of African Americans to the field of psychology. Journal of Black Studies , 35 , 40–64.

Bulfinch, T. (1855). The age of fable: Or, stories of gods and heroes . Boston, MA: Chase, Nichols and Hill.

Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 12 , 1–49.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Week 3 Social Psych
Download Week  Quiz PDF eBook
19 Pages
2015
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Week 3 Social Psych Quiz

Question: Which of the following is TRUE?

Choices:

According to Moscovici, in order to influence others, an opinion minority should use a tactic that differs from those used by an opinion majority.

The blue-green experiment showed than an opinion minority that expressed their opinion consistently could influence a majority's opinion.

Consistent minorities can affect privately held opinions especially when they are indirectly related to the minority opinions.

All of the above are TRUE.

Question: Which of the following statements is true about transactional and transformation leaderships?

Choices:

Transactional leadership is not effective.

Transactional leadership is based on individualised consideration and contingent reward.

Transactional leadership involves providing one's followers with inspiration, and persuading them to rise above their own self-interests to achieve the leader's vision.

All of the above are true.

Question: Which of the following is TRUE about Milgram's experiments about electric shocks?

Choices:

Approximately 30% of the participants administered the maximum shock (450 V) to a learner.

Reducing the level of legitimacy of the authority can reduce the level of obedience.

Participants obeyed even more when the authority was not physically present.

A recent study has shown a significant reduction in obedience since Milgram's original experiment

Question: According to Moreland and Levine, most groups undergo dynamic changes as some people join the group and others leave it. Which of the following is FALSE about this process?

Choices:

Their model of group dynamics is applicable to all groups.

The investigation phase is usually followed the socialisation phase.

In the maintenance phase, members engage in role negotiation.

Those group members who were led to believe that the other group members of the group have been meeting before (i.e. experimental participants) increased their commitment to the group.

Question: Which of the following is FALSE about collective behaviour?

Choices:

Le Bon argued that a person in a crowd is "a creature acting by instinct"

Deindividuation is a weaker sense of, or a decreased focus on, personal identity.

Research suggests that deindividuation consistently results in aggression.

Social identity theory suggests that deindividuation strengthens group members' tendency to adhere to their groups' situational norms.

Question: Which of the following is FALSE about the Asch-type conformity situation?

Choices:

University students showed a lower level of conformity than non-students

Japanese students showed a higher conformity rate when the pressure came from other students in the same sports club.

Korean advertisements emphasise conformity more than American advertisements.

The conformity rate is higher in individualist cultures than in collectivist culture

Question: According to Steiner's model of group performance, which of the following is FALSE?

Choices:

Group performance can never exceed the potential set by group members.

Group may perform worse than its potential due to coordination losses.

There is an element of social loafing in motivation losses in group settings.

A group can create synergies among its members, and perform better than the best of its members

Question: Which of the following is FALSE about Asch's conformity studies?

Choices:

A naive participant was asked to make a judgement about line lengths after some confederates made judgements in public.

Approximately 25% of the participants never conformed

The rate of conformity kept rising as the number of confederates who made the wrong judgements increased up to six.

Even when a number of confederates gave an erroneous judgement, if there was one person who gave the right judgement, this reduced the rate of conformity.

Question: Which of the following is TRUE?

Choices:

Group polarisation refers to groups' tendency to make a more risky decision.

When confronted by an out-group view that is riskier, an in-group tends to become more risky.

Group polarisaton may occur in part because group members change their opinions in line with other group members' opinions.

People are more likely to discuss information that is unshared with others in group discussions.

Question: If someone said, "I don't want to do what she told me, but I have to", which type of social influence would it be? Choose the BEST response.

Choices:

Majority social influence

Minority social influence

Normative social influence

Information social influence

Question: Which of the following is FALSE about group-think?

Choices:

It is a mode of thinking in which the desire to reach unanimous agreement overrides the motivation to adopt proper rational decision-making procedures.

There is no evidence that political considerations play a role in faulty decision making.

There is evidence that a strong leader and a high level of conformity tend to be present when groups exhibit group think.

Even successful groups showed some indicators of group think.

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