Week 1 Social Psych

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Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. (credit "background": modification of work by Nattachai Noogure; credit "top left": modification of work by U.S. Navy; credit "top middle-left": modification of work by Peter Shanks; credit "top middle-right": modification of work by "devinf"/Flickr; credit "top right": modification of work by Alejandra Quintero Sinisterra; credit "bottom left": modification of work by Gabriel Rocha; credit "bottom middle-left": modification of work by Caleb Roenigk; credit "bottom middle-right": modification of work by Staffan Scherz; credit "bottom right": modification of work by Czech Provincial Reconstruction Team)

Clive Wearing is an accomplished musician who lost his ability to form new memories when he became sick at the age of 46. While he can remember how to play the piano perfectly, he cannot remember what he ate for breakfast just an hour ago (Sacks, 2007). James Wannerton experiences a taste sensation that is associated with the sound of words. His former girlfriend’s name tastes like rhubarb (Mundasad, 2013). John Nash is a brilliant mathematician and Nobel Prize winner. However, while he was a professor at MIT, he would tell people that the New York Times contained coded messages from extraterrestrial beings that were intended for him. He also began to hear voices and became suspicious of the people around him. Soon thereafter, Nash was diagnosed with schizophrenia and admitted to a state-run mental institution (O’Connor&Robertson, 2002). Nash was the subject of the 2001 movie A Beautiful Mind . Why did these people have these experiences? How does the human brain work? And what is the connection between the brain’s internal processes and people’s external behaviors? This textbook will introduce you to various ways that the field of psychology has explored these questions.

References

American Board of Forensic Psychology. (2014). Brochure . Retrieved from http://www.abfp.com/brochure.asp

American Psychological Association. (2014). Retrieved from www.apa.org

American Psychological Association. (2014). Graduate training and career possibilities in exercise and sport psychology. Retrieved from http://www.apadivisions.org/division-47/about/resources/training.aspx?item=1

American Psychological Association. (2011). Psychology as a career. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/education/undergrad/psych-career.aspx

Ashliman, D. L. (2001). Cupid and Psyche. In Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology. Retrieved from http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/cupid.html

Betancourt, H.,&López, S. R. (1993). The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. American Psychologist , 48 , 629–637.

Black, S. R., Spence, S. A.,&Omari, S. R. (2004). Contributions of African Americans to the field of psychology. Journal of Black Studies , 35 , 40–64.

Bulfinch, T. (1855). The age of fable: Or, stories of gods and heroes . Boston, MA: Chase, Nichols and Hill.

Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 12 , 1–49.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Week 1 Social Psych
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21 Pages
2015
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Week 1 Social Psych Quiz

Question: In order to test a hypothesis that the presence of others inhibits a person from intervening in an emergency situation, a fake smoke was introduced in a room where one or more unsuspecting experimental participants thought they were involved in a different experiment. The results showed that people were less likely to report the smoke when they were with others than when they were alone.

Choices:

The results were consistent with the hypothesis; but the hypothesis needs to be tested in other emergency situations as well.

The results are consistent with the hypothesis; but there is an alternative explanation of the results.

Both A and B

Neither A nor B

Question: Heider (1958) argued that people are like naive scientists who try to make sense of an observable behaviour by inferring its cause. Beliefs about what caused a behaviour are called attributions. Internal attributions are:

Choices:

Discretional attributes.

Situational attributes

Beliefs that something inside the person who performed the behaviour has caused the behaviour.

Beliefs that something inherent in the situation where the behaviour has caused the behaviour

Question: According to the textbook, bystander intervention is a result of a decision making process involving five steps. Which of the following is false?

Choices:

Becoming aware of someone's need for help is an important step in this decision-making process

If a bystander does not experience arousal, he/she will not help

Working out the rewards is an important factor, but working out the cost is not.

This model can explain why bystanders often fail to provide help.

Question: Social exclusion and rejection are said to 'hurt'. Which of the following is TRUE about this statement?

Choices:

Only the anterior cingulate area was shown to be activated.

People cannot regulate the pain of ostracism.

This is a figure of speech, and there is no reason to believe it actually hurts.

None of the above is true.

Question: Which of the following is TRUE about people's judgements about personalities and abilities based on photos of others' faces.

Choices:

Their judgements after 100 ms are often as accurate as their considered judgements.

Judgements about the personality of people after viewing their pictures for one second were very different from snap judgements after viewing the same pictures for 100 ms.

A political candidate who is evaluated to be more competent is more likely to win in a US election.

All of the above are true

Question: When people are involved in a systematic processing of information, they need:

Choices:

Enough cognitive resources to process the information systematically

Enough motivation to process the information systematically

Only a or b

Both a and b

Question: Which of the following is TRUE about people's impressions about a target person?

Choices:

Impressions are formed on the basis of the cues associated with the target person.

People rarely use the person's group membership in forming impressions.

People often try not to form impressions about other people.

All of the above are true.

Question: In a cyberball experiment, a participant is induced to feel he or she belongs in a group by being initially included in a cyber-version of a ball-tossing game. When the participant is excluded from the group, he or she reports lower levels of _____ than when not excluded from the group

Choices:

Belonging

Control

Self-esteem

All of the above

Question: According to the lecture, social factors are important for psychological processes because experiments have demonstrated that:

Choices:

People behave differently when even a minimal social relationship is present

People feel and behave differently when their social relationship is removed from them.

Both A and B

Neither A nor B

Question: After reading about an attorney who left an injured person in the hospital and went to the court, a participant in Miller's study in the USA and India said, "It was his duty to be in court for the client he was representing". Which of the following is TRUE?

Choices:

It is one of the typical US responses.

It is one of the typical Indian responses

It tends to focus on the actor without considering the context of his action.

None of the above is TRUE.

Question: Which of the following is TRUE about a correspondence bias (or fundamental attribution error)?

Choices:

It is a bias in people's judgements about others' intelligence.

It is a universal human bias based on the limitation of human rationality.

People from some cultural backgrounds show a greater extent of this bias than others.

It is unaffected by people's stereotypes

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Yasser Ibrahim
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