To check the result, substitute
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=10\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ into
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{log}\left(3x-2\right)-\mathrm{log}\left(2\right)=\mathrm{log}\left(x+4\right).$
Using the one-to-one property of logarithms to solve logarithmic equations
For any algebraic expressions
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}S\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and any positive real number
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b,$ where
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b\ne 1,$
Note, when solving an equation involving logarithms, always check to see if the answer is correct or if it is an extraneous solution.
Given an equation containing logarithms, solve it using the one-to-one property.
Use the rules of logarithms to combine like terms, if necessary, so that the resulting equation has the form
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{b}S={\mathrm{log}}_{b}T.$
Use the one-to-one property to set the arguments equal.
Solve the resulting equation,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}S=T,$ for the unknown.
Solving an equation using the one-to-one property of logarithms
Solving applied problems using exponential and logarithmic equations
In previous sections, we learned the properties and rules for both exponential and logarithmic functions. We have seen that any exponential function can be written as a logarithmic function and vice versa. We have used exponents to solve logarithmic equations and logarithms to solve exponential equations. We are now ready to combine our skills to solve equations that model real-world situations, whether the unknown is in an exponent or in the argument of a logarithm.
One such application is in science, in calculating the time it takes for half of the unstable material in a sample of a radioactive substance to decay, called its
half-life .
[link] lists the half-life for several of the more common radioactive substances.
Substance
Use
Half-life
gallium-67
nuclear medicine
80 hours
cobalt-60
manufacturing
5.3 years
technetium-99m
nuclear medicine
6 hours
americium-241
construction
432 years
carbon-14
archeological dating
5,715 years
uranium-235
atomic power
703,800,000 years
We can see how widely the half-lives for these substances vary. Knowing the half-life of a substance allows us to calculate the amount remaining after a specified time. We can use the formula for radioactive decay:
A laser rangefinder is locked on a comet approaching Earth. The distance g(x), in kilometers, of the comet after x days, for x in the interval 0 to 30 days, is given by g(x)=250,000csc(π30x). Graph g(x) on the interval [0, 35]. Evaluate g(5) and interpret the information. What is the minimum distance between the comet and Earth? When does this occur? To which constant in the equation does this correspond? Find and discuss the meaning of any vertical asymptotes.