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How long will it take before twenty percent of our 1000-gram sample of uranium-235 has decayed?

t = 703 , 800 , 000 × ln ( 0.8 ) ln ( 0.5 )  years    226 , 572 , 993  years .

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Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with exponential and logarithmic equations.

Key equations

One-to-one property for exponential functions For any algebraic expressions   S   and   T   and any positive real number   b ,   where
b S = b T   if and only if   S = T .
Definition of a logarithm For any algebraic expression S and positive real numbers   b     and   c ,   where   b 1 ,
log b ( S ) = c   if and only if   b c = S .
One-to-one property for logarithmic functions For any algebraic expressions S and T and any positive real number   b ,   where   b 1 ,
log b S = log b T   if and only if   S = T .

Key concepts

  • We can solve many exponential equations by using the rules of exponents to rewrite each side as a power with the same base. Then we use the fact that exponential functions are one-to-one to set the exponents equal to one another and solve for the unknown.
  • When we are given an exponential equation where the bases are explicitly shown as being equal, set the exponents equal to one another and solve for the unknown. See [link] .
  • When we are given an exponential equation where the bases are not explicitly shown as being equal, rewrite each side of the equation as powers of the same base, then set the exponents equal to one another and solve for the unknown. See [link] , [link] , and [link] .
  • When an exponential equation cannot be rewritten with a common base, solve by taking the logarithm of each side. See [link] .
  • We can solve exponential equations with base e , by applying the natural logarithm of both sides because exponential and logarithmic functions are inverses of each other. See [link] and [link] .
  • After solving an exponential equation, check each solution in the original equation to find and eliminate any extraneous solutions. See [link] .
  • When given an equation of the form log b ( S ) = c , where S is an algebraic expression, we can use the definition of a logarithm to rewrite the equation as the equivalent exponential equation b c = S , and solve for the unknown. See [link] and [link] .
  • We can also use graphing to solve equations with the form log b ( S ) = c . We graph both equations y = log b ( S ) and y = c on the same coordinate plane and identify the solution as the x- value of the intersecting point. See [link] .
  • When given an equation of the form log b S = log b T , where S and T are algebraic expressions, we can use the one-to-one property of logarithms to solve the equation S = T for the unknown. See [link] .
  • Combining the skills learned in this and previous sections, we can solve equations that model real world situations, whether the unknown is in an exponent or in the argument of a logarithm. See [link] .

Section exercises

Verbal

How can an exponential equation be solved?

Determine first if the equation can be rewritten so that each side uses the same base. If so, the exponents can be set equal to each other. If the equation cannot be rewritten so that each side uses the same base, then apply the logarithm to each side and use properties of logarithms to solve.

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Questions & Answers

root under 3-root under 2 by 5 y square
Himanshu Reply
The sum of the first n terms of a certain series is 2^n-1, Show that , this series is Geometric and Find the formula of the n^th
amani Reply
cosA\1+sinA=secA-tanA
Aasik Reply
why two x + seven is equal to nineteen.
Kingsley Reply
The numbers cannot be combined with the x
Othman
2x + 7 =19
humberto
2x +7=19. 2x=19 - 7 2x=12 x=6
Yvonne
because x is 6
SAIDI
what is the best practice that will address the issue on this topic? anyone who can help me. i'm working on my action research.
Melanie Reply
simplify each radical by removing as many factors as possible (a) √75
Jason Reply
how is infinity bidder from undefined?
Karl Reply
what is the value of x in 4x-2+3
Vishal Reply
give the complete question
Shanky
4x=3-2 4x=1 x=1+4 x=5 5x
Olaiya
hi can you give another equation I'd like to solve it
Daniel
what is the value of x in 4x-2+3
Olaiya
if 4x-2+3 = 0 then 4x = 2-3 4x = -1 x = -(1÷4) is the answer.
Jacob
4x-2+3 4x=-3+2 4×=-1 4×/4=-1/4
LUTHO
then x=-1/4
LUTHO
4x-2+3 4x=-3+2 4x=-1 4x÷4=-1÷4 x=-1÷4
LUTHO
A research student is working with a culture of bacteria that doubles in size every twenty minutes. The initial population count was  1350  bacteria. Rounding to five significant digits, write an exponential equation representing this situation. To the nearest whole number, what is the population size after  3  hours?
David Reply
v=lbh calculate the volume if i.l=5cm, b=2cm ,h=3cm
Haidar Reply
Need help with math
Peya
can you help me on this topic of Geometry if l help you
litshani
( cosec Q _ cot Q ) whole spuare = 1_cosQ / 1+cosQ
Aarav Reply
A guy wire for a suspension bridge runs from the ground diagonally to the top of the closest pylon to make a triangle. We can use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of guy wire needed. The square of the distance between the wire on the ground and the pylon on the ground is 90,000 feet. The square of the height of the pylon is 160,000 feet. So, the length of the guy wire can be found by evaluating √(90000+160000). What is the length of the guy wire?
Maxwell Reply
the indicated sum of a sequence is known as
Arku Reply
how do I attempted a trig number as a starter
Tumwe Reply
cos 18 ____ sin 72 evaluate
Het Reply
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, Algebra and trigonometry. OpenStax CNX. Nov 14, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11758/1.6
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