In
[link] , does the (–1) to the power of$n$account for the oscillations of signs?
Yes, the power might be$n,n+1,n-1,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$and so on, but any odd powers will result in a negative term, and any even power will result in a positive term.
Write the first five terms of the sequence:
$${a}_{n}=\frac{4n}{{(-2)}^{n}}$$
The first five terms are
$\left\{-2,2,-\frac{3}{2},1,\text{}-\frac{5}{8}\right\}.$
We’ve learned that sequences are functions whose domain is over the positive integers. This is true for other types of functions, including some
piecewise functions . Recall that a piecewise function is a function defined by multiple subsections. A different formula might represent each individual subsection.
Given an explicit formula for a piecewise function, write the first
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ terms of a sequence
Identify the formula to which
$n=1$ applies.
To find the first term,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{a}_{1},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ use
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n=1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ in the appropriate formula.
Identify the formula to which
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ applies.
To find the second term,
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{a}_{2},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ use
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ in the appropriate formula.
Continue in the same manner until you have identified all
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ terms.
Writing the terms of a sequence defined by a piecewise explicit formula
Substitute
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n=1,n=2,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and so on in the appropriate formula. Use
${n}^{2}$ when
$n$ is not a multiple of 3. Use
$\frac{n}{3}$ when
$n$ is a multiple of 3.
Thus far, we have been given the explicit formula and asked to find a number of terms of the sequence. Sometimes, the explicit formula for the
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n\text{th}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ term of a sequence is not given. Instead, we are given several terms from the sequence. When this happens, we can work in reverse to find an explicit formula from the first few terms of a sequence. The key to finding an explicit formula is to look for a pattern in the terms. Keep in mind that the pattern may involve alternating terms, formulas for numerators, formulas for denominators, exponents, or bases.
Given the first few terms of a sequence, find an explicit formula for the sequence.
Look for a pattern among the terms.
If the terms are fractions, look for a separate pattern among the numerators and denominators.
Look for a pattern among the signs of the terms.
Write a formula for
${a}_{n}$ in terms of
$n.$ Test your formula for
$n=1,\text{}n=2,$ and
$n=3.$
Writing an explicit formula for the
n Th term of a sequence
Write an explicit formula for the
$n\text{th}$ term of each sequence.
The terms alternate between positive and negative. We can use
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{(-1)}^{n}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to make the terms alternate. The numerator can be represented by
$n+1.$ The denominator can be represented by
$2n+9.$
${a}_{n}=\frac{{(-1)}^{n}(n+1)}{2n+9}$
The terms are all negative.
So we know that the fraction is negative, the numerator is 2, and the denominator can be represented by
${5}^{n+1}.$
$${a}_{n}=-\frac{2}{{5}^{n+1}}$$
The terms are powers of
$e.$ For
$n=1,$ the first term is
${e}^{4}$ so the exponent must be
$n+3.$
A laser rangefinder is locked on a comet approaching Earth. The distance g(x), in kilometers, of the comet after x days, for x in the interval 0 to 30 days, is given by g(x)=250,000csc(π30x). Graph g(x) on the interval [0, 35]. Evaluate g(5) and interpret the information. What is the minimum distance between the comet and Earth? When does this occur? To which constant in the equation does this correspond? Find and discuss the meaning of any vertical asymptotes.