4.7 Exponential and logarithmic models  (Page 8/16)

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Verbal

With what kind of exponential model would half-life be associated? What role does half-life play in these models?

Half-life is a measure of decay and is thus associated with exponential decay models. The half-life of a substance or quantity is the amount of time it takes for half of the initial amount of that substance or quantity to decay.

What is carbon dating? Why does it work? Give an example in which carbon dating would be useful.

With what kind of exponential model would doubling time be associated? What role does doubling time play in these models?

Doubling time is a measure of growth and is thus associated with exponential growth models. The doubling time of a substance or quantity is the amount of time it takes for the initial amount of that substance or quantity to double in size.

Define Newton’s Law of Cooling. Then name at least three real-world situations where Newton’s Law of Cooling would be applied.

What is an order of magnitude? Why are orders of magnitude useful? Give an example to explain.

An order of magnitude is the nearest power of ten by which a quantity exponentially grows. It is also an approximate position on a logarithmic scale; Sample response: Orders of magnitude are useful when making comparisons between numbers that differ by a great amount. For example, the mass of Saturn is 95 times greater than the mass of Earth. This is the same as saying that the mass of Saturn is about $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{\text{2}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ times, or 2 orders of magnitude greater, than the mass of Earth.

Numeric

The temperature of an object in degrees Fahrenheit after t minutes is represented by the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T\left(t\right)=68{e}^{-0.0174t}+72.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ To the nearest degree, what is the temperature of the object after one and a half hours?

For the following exercises, use the logistic growth model $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{150}{1+8{e}^{-2x}}.$

Find and interpret $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(0\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Round to the nearest tenth.

$f\left(0\right)\approx 16.7;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ The amount initially present is about 16.7 units.

Find and interpret $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(4\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Round to the nearest tenth.

Find the carrying capacity.

150

Graph the model.

Determine whether the data from the table could best be represented as a function that is linear, exponential, or logarithmic. Then write a formula for a model that represents the data.

 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ –2 0.694 –1 0.833 0 1 1 1.2 2 1.44 3 1.728 4 2.074 5 2.488

exponential; $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={1.2}^{x}$

Rewrite $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=1.68{\left(0.65\right)}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as an exponential equation with base $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to five significant digits.

Technology

For the following exercises, enter the data from each table into a graphing calculator and graph the resulting scatter plots. Determine whether the data from the table could represent a function that is linear, exponential, or logarithmic.

 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ 1 2 2 4.079 3 5.296 4 6.159 5 6.828 6 7.375 7 7.838 8 8.238 9 8.592 10 8.908

logarithmic

 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ 1 2.4 2 2.88 3 3.456 4 4.147 5 4.977 6 5.972 7 7.166 8 8.6 9 10.32 10 12.383
 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ 4 9.429 5 9.972 6 10.415 7 10.79 8 11.115 9 11.401 10 11.657 11 11.889 12 12.101 13 12.295

logarithmic

 $x$ $f\left(x\right)$ 1.25 5.75 2.25 8.75 3.56 12.68 4.2 14.6 5.65 18.95 6.75 22.25 7.25 23.75 8.6 27.8 9.25 29.75 10.5 33.5

For the following exercises, use a graphing calculator and this scenario: the population of a fish farm in $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ years is modeled by the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}P\left(t\right)=\frac{1000}{1+9{e}^{-0.6t}}.$

Questions & Answers

can you not take the square root of a negative number
Sharon Reply
No because a negative times a negative is a positive. No matter what you do you can never multiply the same number by itself and end with a negative
lurverkitten
Actually you can. you get what's called an Imaginary number denoted by i which is represented on the complex plane. The reply above would be correct if we were still confined to the "real" number line.
Liam
Suppose P= {-3,1,3} Q={-3,-2-1} and R= {-2,2,3}.what is the intersection
Elaine Reply
can I get some pretty basic questions
Ama Reply
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
Ama
is precalculus needed to take caculus
Amara Reply
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
Spiro
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
Mars Reply
what is the domain of f(x)=x-4/x^2-2x-15 then
Conney Reply
x is different from -5&3
Seid
All real x except 5 and - 3
Spiro
***youtu.be/ESxOXfh2Poc
Loree
how to prroved cos⁴x-sin⁴x= cos²x-sin²x are equal
jeric Reply
Don't think that you can.
Elliott
By using some imaginary no.
Tanmay
how do you provided cos⁴x-sin⁴x = cos²x-sin²x are equal
jeric Reply
What are the question marks for?
Elliott
Someone should please solve it for me Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5 simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
Abena Reply
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15 Second one, I got Root 2 Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power) I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
Abena
find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
Ashley Reply
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
Ashley
how
Wargod
what?
John
ok, one moment
UriEl
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
UriEl
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
thanks Tommy
Nimo
0=3x-2 2=3x x=3/2 then . y=3/2X-2 I think
Given
co ordinates for x x=0,(-2,0) x=1,(1,1) x=2,(2,4)
neil
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
Fiston Reply
Where do the rays point?
Spiro
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
Ahlicia Reply
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
Carlos Reply
so good
abdikarin
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
Brad
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
Mary Reply
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
what is f(x)=
Karim Reply
I don't understand
Joe
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!!
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas

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