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Using synthetic division to divide a second-degree polynomial

Use synthetic division to divide 5 x 2 3 x 36 by x 3.

Begin by setting up the synthetic division. Write k and the coefficients.

A collapsed version of the previous synthetic division.

Bring down the lead coefficient. Multiply the lead coefficient by k .

The set-up of the synthetic division for the polynomial 5x^2-3x-36 by x-3, which renders {5, -3, -36} by 3.

Continue by adding the numbers in the second column. Multiply the resulting number by k . Write the result in the next column. Then add the numbers in the third column.

Multiplied by the lead coefficient, 5, in the second column, and the lead coefficient is brought down to the second row.

The result is 5 x + 12. The remainder is 0. So x 3 is a factor of the original polynomial.

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Using synthetic division to divide a third-degree polynomial

Use synthetic division to divide 4 x 3 + 10 x 2 6 x 20 by x + 2.

The binomial divisor is x + 2 so k = 2. Add each column, multiply the result by –2, and repeat until the last column is reached.

Synthetic division of 4x^3+10x^2-6x-20 divided by x+2.

The result is 4 x 2 + 2 x 10. The remainder is 0. Thus, x + 2 is a factor of 4 x 3 + 10 x 2 6 x 20.

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Using synthetic division to divide a fourth-degree polynomial

Use synthetic division to divide 9 x 4 + 10 x 3 + 7 x 2 6 by x 1.

Notice there is no x -term. We will use a zero as the coefficient for that term.

.

The result is 9 x 3 + x 2 + 8 x + 8 + 2 x 1 .

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Use synthetic division to divide 3 x 4 + 18 x 3 3 x + 40 by x + 7.

3 x 3 3 x 2 + 21 x 150 + 1 , 090 x + 7

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Using polynomial division to solve application problems

Polynomial division can be used to solve a variety of application problems involving expressions for area and volume. We looked at an application at the beginning of this section. Now we will solve that problem in the following example.

Using polynomial division in an application problem

The volume of a rectangular solid is given by the polynomial 3 x 4 3 x 3 33 x 2 + 54 x . The length of the solid is given by 3 x and the width is given by x 2. Find the height of the solid.

There are a few ways to approach this problem. We need to divide the expression for the volume of the solid by the expressions for the length and width. Let us create a sketch as in [link] .

Graph of f(x)=4x^3+10x^2-6x-20 with a close up on x+2.

We can now write an equation by substituting the known values into the formula for the volume of a rectangular solid.

V = l w h 3 x 4 3 x 3 33 x 2 + 54 x = 3 x ( x 2 ) h

To solve for h , first divide both sides by 3 x .

3 x ( x 2 ) h 3 x = 3 x 4 3 x 3 33 x 2 + 54 x 3 x ( x 2 ) h = x 3 x 2 11 x + 18

Now solve for h using synthetic division.

h = x 3 x 2 11 x + 18 x 2
2 1 1 11 18 2 2 18     1     1   9      0

The quotient is x 2 + x 9 and the remainder is 0. The height of the solid is x 2 + x 9.

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The area of a rectangle is given by 3 x 3 + 14 x 2 23 x + 6. The width of the rectangle is given by x + 6. Find an expression for the length of the rectangle.

3 x 2 4 x + 1

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Key equations

Division Algorithm f ( x ) = d ( x ) q ( x ) + r ( x ) where q ( x ) 0

Key concepts

  • Polynomial long division can be used to divide a polynomial by any polynomial with equal or lower degree. See [link] and [link] .
  • The Division Algorithm tells us that a polynomial dividend can be written as the product of the divisor and the quotient added to the remainder.
  • Synthetic division is a shortcut that can be used to divide a polynomial by a binomial in the form x k . See [link] , [link] , and [link] .
  • Polynomial division can be used to solve application problems, including area and volume. See [link] .

Questions & Answers

find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
Ashley Reply
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
Ashley
how
Wargod
what?
John
ok, one moment
UriEl
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
UriEl
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
Fiston Reply
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
Ahlicia Reply
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
Carlos Reply
so good
abdikarin
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
Brad
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
Mary Reply
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
what is f(x)=
Karim Reply
I don't understand
Joe
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!!
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the  that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas
what is this?
unknown Reply
i do not understand anything
unknown
lol...it gets better
Darius
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
Tiffany
how to solve polynomial using a calculator
Ef Reply
So a horizontal compression by factor of 1/2 is the same as a horizontal stretch by a factor of 2, right?
KARMEL Reply
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1), and the lenght of the major axis is 26
Rima Reply
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
Rima
I done know
Joe
What kind of answer is that😑?
Rima
I had just woken up when i got this message
Joe
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
Rima
i have a question.
Abdul
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
Abdul
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
Nare
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
Abdul
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
Abdul
I have a question
juweeriya
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
mustapha
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Brittany Reply
how do you find the period of a sine graph
Imani Reply
Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
Am
I will try that thank u
Imani
Case of Equilateral Hyperbola
Jhon Reply
ok
Zander
ok
Shella
f(x)=4x+2, find f(3)
Benetta
f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14
lamoussa
14
Vedant
pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14
Devante
8x=40
Chris
Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0
Baptiste Reply
the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Esther Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, Precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Jan 19, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11667/1.6
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