# 9.6 Solving systems with gaussian elimination  (Page 2/13)

 Page 2 / 13

## Writing a system of equations from an augmented matrix form

Find the system of equations from the augmented matrix.

When the columns represent the variables $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ $y,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}z,$

Write the system of equations from the augmented matrix.

$\left[\begin{array}{ccc}1& -1& \text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1\\ 2& -1& \text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}3\\ 0& \text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1& \text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1\end{array}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}|\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\begin{array}{c}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}5\\ \text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1\\ -9\end{array}\right]$

$\begin{array}{c}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}+\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}z=5\\ 2x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}+\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}3z=1\\ \text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}+\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}z=-9\end{array}$

## Performing row operations on a matrix

Now that we can write systems of equations in augmented matrix form, we will examine the various row operations    that can be performed on a matrix, such as addition, multiplication by a constant, and interchanging rows.

Performing row operations on a matrix is the method we use for solving a system of equations. In order to solve the system of equations, we want to convert the matrix to row-echelon form    , in which there are ones down the main diagonal    from the upper left corner to the lower right corner, and zeros in every position below the main diagonal as shown.

We use row operations corresponding to equation operations to obtain a new matrix that is row-equivalent    in a simpler form. Here are the guidelines to obtaining row-echelon form.

1. In any nonzero row, the first nonzero number is a 1. It is called a leading 1.
2. Any all-zero rows are placed at the bottom on the matrix.
3. Any leading 1 is below and to the right of a previous leading 1.
4. Any column containing a leading 1 has zeros in all other positions in the column.

To solve a system of equations we can perform the following row operations to convert the coefficient matrix    to row-echelon form and do back-substitution to find the solution.

1. Interchange rows. (Notation: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{R}_{i}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}↔\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{R}_{j}$ )
2. Multiply a row by a constant. (Notation: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c{R}_{i}$ )
3. Add the product of a row multiplied by a constant to another row. (Notation: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{R}_{i}+c{R}_{j}\right)$

Each of the row operations corresponds to the operations we have already learned to solve systems of equations in three variables. With these operations, there are some key moves that will quickly achieve the goal of writing a matrix in row-echelon form. To obtain a matrix in row-echelon form for finding solutions, we use Gaussian elimination, a method that uses row operations to obtain a 1 as the first entry so that row 1 can be used to convert the remaining rows.

## Gaussian elimination

The Gaussian elimination    method refers to a strategy used to obtain the row-echelon form of a matrix. The goal is to write matrix $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ with the number 1 as the entry down the main diagonal and have all zeros below.

The first step of the Gaussian strategy includes obtaining a 1 as the first entry, so that row 1 may be used to alter the rows below.

Given an augmented matrix, perform row operations to achieve row-echelon form.

1. The first equation should have a leading coefficient of 1. Interchange rows or multiply by a constant, if necessary.
2. Use row operations to obtain zeros down the first column below the first entry of 1.
3. Use row operations to obtain a 1 in row 2, column 2.
4. Use row operations to obtain zeros down column 2, below the entry of 1.
5. Use row operations to obtain a 1 in row 3, column 3.
6. Continue this process for all rows until there is a 1 in every entry down the main diagonal and there are only zeros below.
7. If any rows contain all zeros, place them at the bottom.

#### Questions & Answers

how fast can i understand functions without much difficulty
Joe Reply
what is set?
Kelvin Reply
a colony of bacteria is growing exponentially doubling in size every 100 minutes. how much minutes will it take for the colony of bacteria to triple in size
Divya Reply
I got 300 minutes. is it right?
Patience
no. should be about 150 minutes.
Jason
It should be 158.5 minutes.
Mr
ok, thanks
Patience
100•3=300 300=50•2^x 6=2^x x=log_2(6) =2.5849625 so, 300=50•2^2.5849625 and, so, the # of bacteria will double every (100•2.5849625) = 258.49625 minutes
Thomas
what is the importance knowing the graph of circular functions?
Arabella Reply
can get some help basic precalculus
ismail Reply
What do you need help with?
Andrew
how to convert general to standard form with not perfect trinomial
Camalia Reply
can get some help inverse function
ismail
Rectangle coordinate
Asma Reply
how to find for x
Jhon Reply
it depends on the equation
Robert
yeah, it does. why do we attempt to gain all of them one side or the other?
Melissa
whats a domain
mike Reply
The domain of a function is the set of all input on which the function is defined. For example all real numbers are the Domain of any Polynomial function.
Spiro
Spiro; thanks for putting it out there like that, 😁
Melissa
foci (–7,–17) and (–7,17), the absolute value of the differenceof the distances of any point from the foci is 24.
Churlene Reply
difference between calculus and pre calculus?
Asma Reply
give me an example of a problem so that I can practice answering
Jenefa Reply
x³+y³+z³=42
Robert
dont forget the cube in each variable ;)
Robert
of she solves that, well ... then she has a lot of computational force under her command ....
Walter
what is a function?
CJ Reply
I want to learn about the law of exponent
Quera Reply
explain this
Hinderson Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Jan 19, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11667/1.6
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