# 1.2 Exponents and scientific notation  (Page 8/9)

 Page 8 / 9

## Key equations

 Rules of Exponents For nonzero real numbers $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and integers $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}m\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Product rule ${a}^{m}\cdot {a}^{n}={a}^{m+n}$ Quotient rule $\frac{{a}^{m}}{{a}^{n}}={a}^{m-n}$ Power rule ${\left({a}^{m}\right)}^{n}={a}^{m\cdot n}$ Zero exponent rule ${a}^{0}=1$ Negative rule ${a}^{-n}=\frac{1}{{a}^{n}}$ Power of a product rule ${\left(a\cdot b\right)}^{n}={a}^{n}\cdot {b}^{n}$ Power of a quotient rule ${\left(\frac{a}{b}\right)}^{n}=\frac{{a}^{n}}{{b}^{n}}$

## Key concepts

• Products of exponential expressions with the same base can be simplified by adding exponents. See [link] .
• Quotients of exponential expressions with the same base can be simplified by subtracting exponents. See [link] .
• Powers of exponential expressions with the same base can be simplified by multiplying exponents. See [link] .
• An expression with exponent zero is defined as 1. See [link] .
• An expression with a negative exponent is defined as a reciprocal. See [link] and [link] .
• The power of a product of factors is the same as the product of the powers of the same factors. See [link] .
• The power of a quotient of factors is the same as the quotient of the powers of the same factors. See [link] .
• The rules for exponential expressions can be combined to simplify more complicated expressions. See [link] .
• Scientific notation uses powers of 10 to simplify very large or very small numbers. See [link] and [link] .
• Scientific notation may be used to simplify calculations with very large or very small numbers. See [link] and [link] .

## Verbal

Is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{2}^{3}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the same as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{3}^{2}?\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Explain.

No, the two expressions are not the same. An exponent tells how many times you multiply the base. So $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{2}^{3}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is the same as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2×2×2,$ which is 8. $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{3}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is the same as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}3×3,$ which is 9.

When can you add two exponents?

What is the purpose of scientific notation?

It is a method of writing very small and very large numbers.

Explain what a negative exponent does.

## Numeric

For the following exercises, simplify the given expression. Write answers with positive exponents.

$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{9}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$

81

${15}^{-2}$

${3}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{3}^{3}$

243

${4}^{4}÷4$

${\left({2}^{2}\right)}^{-2}$

$\frac{1}{16}$

${\left(5-8\right)}^{0}$

${11}^{3}÷{11}^{4}$

$\frac{1}{11}$

${6}^{5}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{6}^{-7}$

${\left({8}^{0}\right)}^{2}$

1

${5}^{-2}÷{5}^{2}$

For the following exercises, write each expression with a single base. Do not simplify further. Write answers with positive exponents.

${4}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{4}^{3}÷{4}^{-4}$

${4}^{9}$

$\frac{{6}^{12}}{{6}^{9}}$

${\left({12}^{3}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}12\right)}^{10}$

${12}^{40}$

${10}^{6}÷{\left({10}^{10}\right)}^{-2}$

${7}^{-6}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{7}^{-3}$

$\frac{1}{{7}^{9}}$

${\left({3}^{3}÷{3}^{4}\right)}^{5}$

For the following exercises, express the decimal in scientific notation.

0.0000314

$3.14\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×{10}^{-5}$

148,000,000

For the following exercises, convert each number in scientific notation to standard notation.

$1.6\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{10}$

16,000,000,000

$9.8\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{-9}$

## Algebraic

For the following exercises, simplify the given expression. Write answers with positive exponents.

$\frac{{a}^{3}{a}^{2}}{a}$

${a}^{4}$

$\frac{m{n}^{2}}{{m}^{-2}}$

${\left({b}^{3}{c}^{4}\right)}^{2}$

${b}^{6}{c}^{8}$

${\left(\frac{{x}^{-3}}{{y}^{2}}\right)}^{-5}$

$a{b}^{2}÷{d}^{-3}$

$a{b}^{2}{d}^{3}$

${\left({w}^{0}{x}^{5}\right)}^{-1}$

$\frac{{m}^{4}}{{n}^{0}}$

${m}^{4}$

${y}^{-4}{\left({y}^{2}\right)}^{2}$

$\frac{{p}^{-4}{q}^{2}}{{p}^{2}{q}^{-3}}$

$\frac{{q}^{5}}{{p}^{6}}$

${\left(l\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}w\right)}^{2}$

${\left({y}^{7}\right)}^{3}÷{x}^{14}$

$\frac{{y}^{21}}{{x}^{14}}$

${\left(\frac{a}{{2}^{3}}\right)}^{2}$

${5}^{2}m÷{5}^{0}m$

$25$

$\frac{{\left(16\sqrt{x}\right)}^{2}}{{y}^{-1}}$

$\frac{{2}^{3}}{{\left(3a\right)}^{-2}}$

$72{a}^{2}$

${\left(m{a}^{6}\right)}^{2}\frac{1}{{m}^{3}{a}^{2}}$

${\left({b}^{-3}c\right)}^{3}$

$\frac{{c}^{3}}{{b}^{9}}$

${\left({x}^{2}{y}^{13}÷{y}^{0}\right)}^{2}$

${\left(9{z}^{3}\right)}^{-2}y$

$\frac{y}{81{z}^{6}}$

## Real-world applications

To reach escape velocity, a rocket must travel at the rate of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2.2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{6}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ ft/min. Rewrite the rate in standard notation.

A dime is the thinnest coin in U.S. currency. A dime’s thickness measures $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1.35\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{-3}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ m. Rewrite the number in standard notation.

0.00135 m

The average distance between Earth and the Sun is 92,960,000 mi. Rewrite the distance using scientific notation.

A terabyte is made of approximately 1,099,500,000,000 bytes. Rewrite in scientific notation.

$1.0995×{10}^{12}$

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the United States in the first quarter of 2014 was $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{}1.71496\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{13}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Rewrite the GDP in standard notation.

One picometer is approximately $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}3.397\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{-11}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ in. Rewrite this length using standard notation.

0.00000000003397 in.

The value of the services sector of the U.S. economy in the first quarter of 2012 was \$10,633.6 billion. Rewrite this amount in scientific notation.

## Technology

For the following exercises, use a graphing calculator to simplify. Round the answers to the nearest hundredth.

${\left(\frac{{12}^{3}{m}^{33}}{{4}^{-3}}\right)}^{2}$

12,230,590,464 $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{m}^{66}$

${17}^{3}÷{15}^{2}{x}^{3}$

## Extensions

For the following exercises, simplify the given expression. Write answers with positive exponents.

${\left(\frac{{3}^{2}}{{a}^{3}}\right)}^{-2}{\left(\frac{{a}^{4}}{{2}^{2}}\right)}^{2}$

$\frac{{a}^{14}}{1296}$

${\left({6}^{2}-24\right)}^{2}÷{\left(\frac{x}{y}\right)}^{-5}$

$\frac{{m}^{2}{n}^{3}}{{a}^{2}{c}^{-3}}\cdot \frac{{a}^{-7}{n}^{-2}}{{m}^{2}{c}^{4}}$

$\frac{n}{{a}^{9}c}$

${\left(\frac{{x}^{6}{y}^{3}}{{x}^{3}{y}^{-3}}\cdot \frac{{y}^{-7}}{{x}^{-3}}\right)}^{10}$

${\left(\frac{{\left(a{b}^{2}c\right)}^{-3}}{{b}^{-3}}\right)}^{2}$

$\frac{1}{{a}^{6}{b}^{6}{c}^{6}}$

Avogadro’s constant is used to calculate the number of particles in a mole. A mole is a basic unit in chemistry to measure the amount of a substance. The constant is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}6.0221413\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{23}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Write Avogadro’s constant in standard notation.

Planck’s constant is an important unit of measure in quantum physics. It describes the relationship between energy and frequency. The constant is written as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}6.62606957\text{\hspace{0.17em}}×\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{10}^{-34}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Write Planck’s constant in standard notation.

0.000000000000000000000000000000000662606957

#### Questions & Answers

bsc F. y algebra and trigonometry pepper 2
given that x= 3/5 find sin 3x
4
DB
remove any signs and collect terms of -2(8a-3b-c)
-16a+6b+2c
Will
is that a real answer
Joeval
(x2-2x+8)-4(x2-3x+5)
sorry
Miranda
x²-2x+9-4x²+12x-20 -3x²+10x+11
Miranda
x²-2x+9-4x²+12x-20 -3x²+10x+11
Miranda
(X2-2X+8)-4(X2-3X+5)=0 ?
master
The anwser is imaginary number if you want to know The anwser of the expression you must arrange The expression and use quadratic formula To find the answer
master
The anwser is imaginary number if you want to know The anwser of the expression you must arrange The expression and use quadratic formula To find the answer
master
Y
master
X2-2X+8-4X2+12X-20=0 (X2-4X2)+(-2X+12X)+(-20+8)= 0 -3X2+10X-12=0 3X2-10X+12=0 Use quadratic formula To find the answer answer (5±Root11i)/3
master
Soo sorry (5±Root11* i)/3
master
x2-2x+8-4x2+12x-20 x2-4x2-2x+12x+8-20 -3x2+10x-12 now you can find the answer using quadratic
Mukhtar
explain and give four example of hyperbolic function
What is the correct rational algebraic expression of the given "a fraction whose denominator is 10 more than the numerator y?
y/y+10
Mr
Find nth derivative of eax sin (bx + c).
Find area common to the parabola y2 = 4ax and x2 = 4ay.
Anurag
A rectangular garden is 25ft wide. if its area is 1125ft, what is the length of the garden
to find the length I divide the area by the wide wich means 1125ft/25ft=45
Miranda
thanks
Jhovie
What do you call a relation where each element in the domain is related to only one value in the range by some rules?
A banana.
Yaona
given 4cot thither +3=0and 0°<thither <180° use a sketch to determine the value of the following a)cos thither
what are you up to?
nothing up todat yet
Miranda
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jai
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jai
Miranda Drice
jai
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jai
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Miranda
I am living in india
jai
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Miranda
what is the formula for calculating algebraic
I think the formula for calculating algebraic is the statement of the equality of two expression stimulate by a set of addition, multiplication, soustraction, division, raising to a power and extraction of Root. U believe by having those in the equation you will be in measure to calculate it
Miranda
state and prove Cayley hamilton therom
hello
Propessor
hi
Miranda
the Cayley hamilton Theorem state if A is a square matrix and if f(x) is its characterics polynomial then f(x)=0 in another ways evey square matrix is a root of its chatacteristics polynomial.
Miranda
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jai
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jai
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Propessor
welcome
jai
What is algebra
algebra is a branch of the mathematics to calculate expressions follow.
Miranda
Miranda Drice would you mind teaching me mathematics? I think you are really good at math. I'm not good at it. In fact I hate it. 😅😅😅
Jeffrey
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Miranda
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Jeffrey
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Miranda
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Jeffrey
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Miranda
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Miranda
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Jeffrey
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Jeffrey
I'm going to 11grade
Miranda
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Miranda
gotta practice, holmie
Steve
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Steve
I don't know why. But Im trying to like it.
Jeffrey
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Jeffrey
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Miranda
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which equation
Miranda
I dont know. lol
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Miranda
Jeffrey