<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Write the formula for the function that we get when we stretch the identity toolkit function by a factor of 3, and then shift it down by 2 units.

g ( x ) = 3 x - 2

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Horizontal stretches and compressions

Now we consider changes to the inside of a function. When we multiply a function’s input by a positive constant, we get a function whose graph is stretched or compressed horizontally in relation to the graph of the original function. If the constant is between 0 and 1, we get a horizontal stretch ; if the constant is greater than 1, we get a horizontal compression of the function.

Graph of the vertical stretch and compression of x^2.

Given a function y = f ( x ) , the form y = f ( b x ) results in a horizontal stretch or compression. Consider the function y = x 2 . Observe [link] . The graph of y = ( 0.5 x ) 2 is a horizontal stretch of the graph of the function y = x 2 by a factor of 2. The graph of y = ( 2 x ) 2 is a horizontal compression of the graph of the function y = x 2 by a factor of 2.

Horizontal stretches and compressions

Given a function f ( x ) , a new function g ( x ) = f ( b x ) , where b is a constant, is a horizontal stretch    or horizontal compression    of the function f ( x ) .

  • If b > 1 , then the graph will be compressed by 1 b .
  • If 0 < b < 1 , then the graph will be stretched by 1 b .
  • If b < 0 , then there will be combination of a horizontal stretch or compression with a horizontal reflection.

Given a description of a function, sketch a horizontal compression or stretch.

  1. Write a formula to represent the function.
  2. Set g ( x ) = f ( b x ) where b > 1 for a compression or 0 < b < 1 for a stretch.

Graphing a horizontal compression

Suppose a scientist is comparing a population of fruit flies to a population that progresses through its lifespan twice as fast as the original population. In other words, this new population, R , will progress in 1 hour the same amount as the original population does in 2 hours, and in 2 hours, it will progress as much as the original population does in 4 hours. Sketch a graph of this population.

Symbolically, we could write

R ( 1 ) = P ( 2 ) , R ( 2 ) = P ( 4 ) ,  and in general, R ( t ) = P ( 2 t ) .

See [link] for a graphical comparison of the original population and the compressed population.

Two side-by-side graphs. The first graph has function for original population whose domain is [0,7] and range is [0,3]. The maximum value occurs at (3,3). The second graph has the same shape as the first except it is half as wide. It is a graph of transformed population, with a domain of [0, 3.5] and a range of [0,3]. The maximum occurs at (1.5, 3).
(a) Original population graph (b) Compressed population graph
Got questions? Get instant answers now!
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Finding a horizontal stretch for a tabular function

A function f ( x ) is given as [link] . Create a table for the function g ( x ) = f ( 1 2 x ) .

x 2 4 6 8
f ( x ) 1 3 7 11

The formula g ( x ) = f ( 1 2 x ) tells us that the output values for g are the same as the output values for the function f at an input half the size. Notice that we do not have enough information to determine g ( 2 ) because g ( 2 ) = f ( 1 2 2 ) = f ( 1 ) , and we do not have a value for f ( 1 ) in our table. Our input values to g will need to be twice as large to get inputs for f that we can evaluate. For example, we can determine g ( 4 ) .

g ( 4 ) = f ( 1 2 4 ) = f ( 2 ) = 1

We do the same for the other values to produce [link] .

x 4 8 12 16
g ( x ) 1 3 7 11

[link] shows the graphs of both of these sets of points.

Graph of the previous table.
Got questions? Get instant answers now!
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Recognizing a horizontal compression on a graph

Relate the function g ( x ) to f ( x ) in [link] .

Graph of f(x) being vertically compressed to g(x).

The graph of g ( x ) looks like the graph of f ( x ) horizontally compressed. Because f ( x ) ends at ( 6 , 4 ) and g ( x ) ends at ( 2 , 4 ) , we can see that the x - values have been compressed by 1 3 , because 6 ( 1 3 ) = 2. We might also notice that g ( 2 ) = f ( 6 ) and g ( 1 ) = f ( 3 ) . Either way, we can describe this relationship as g ( x ) = f ( 3 x ) . This is a horizontal compression by 1 3 .

Got questions? Get instant answers now!
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
Carlos Reply
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
Mary Reply
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
what is f(x)=
Karim Reply
I don't understand
Joe
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!!
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the  that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas
what is this?
unknown Reply
i do not understand anything
unknown
lol...it gets better
Darius
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
Tiffany
how to solve polynomial using a calculator
Ef Reply
So a horizontal compression by factor of 1/2 is the same as a horizontal stretch by a factor of 2, right?
KARMEL Reply
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1), and the lenght of the major axis is 26
Rima Reply
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
Rima
I done know
Joe
What kind of answer is that😑?
Rima
I had just woken up when i got this message
Joe
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
Rima
i have a question.
Abdul
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
Abdul
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
Nare
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
Abdul
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
Abdul
I have a question
juweeriya
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
mustapha
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Brittany Reply
how do you find the period of a sine graph
Imani Reply
Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
Am
I will try that thank u
Imani
Case of Equilateral Hyperbola
Jhon Reply
ok
Zander
ok
Shella
f(x)=4x+2, find f(3)
Benetta
f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14
lamoussa
14
Vedant
pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14
Devante
8x=40
Chris
Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0
Baptiste Reply
the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Esther Reply
divide simplify each answer 3/2÷5/4
Momo Reply
divide simplify each answer 25/3÷5/12
Momo
how can are find the domain and range of a relations
austin Reply
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Morolake
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and $2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and $0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
Diddy Reply
6000
Robert
more than 6000
Robert
For Plan A to reach $27/month to surpass Plan B's $26.50 monthly payment, you'll need 3,000 texts which will cost an additional $10.00. So, for the amount of texts you need to send would need to range between 1-100 texts for the 100th increment, times that by 3 for the additional amount of texts...
Gilbert
...for one text payment for 300 for Plan A. So, that means Plan A; in my opinion is for people with text messaging abilities that their fingers burn the monitor for the cell phone. While Plan B would be for loners that doesn't need their fingers to due the talking; but those texts mean more then...
Gilbert

Get the best Precalculus course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Jan 19, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11667/1.6
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Precalculus' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask