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Using a calculator to perform matrix operations

Find A B C given

A = [ −15 25 32 41 −7 −28 10 34 −2 ] , B = [ 45 21 −37 −24 52 19 6 −48 −31 ] , and  C = [ −100 −89 −98 25 −56 74 −67 42 −75 ] .

On the matrix page of the calculator, we enter matrix A above as the matrix variable [ A ] , matrix B above as the matrix variable [ B ] , and matrix C above as the matrix variable [ C ] .

On the home screen of the calculator, we type in the problem and call up each matrix variable as needed.

[ A ] × [ B ] [ C ]

The calculator gives us the following matrix.

[ 983 462 136 1 , 820 1 , 897 856 311 2 , 032 413 ]
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Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with matrices and matrix operations.

Key concepts

  • A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. Entries are arranged in rows and columns.
  • The dimensions of a matrix refer to the number of rows and the number of columns. A 3 × 2 matrix has three rows and two columns. See [link] .
  • We add and subtract matrices of equal dimensions by adding and subtracting corresponding entries of each matrix. See [link] , [link] , [link] , and [link] .
  • Scalar multiplication involves multiplying each entry in a matrix by a constant. See [link] .
  • Scalar multiplication is often required before addition or subtraction can occur. See [link] .
  • Multiplying matrices is possible when inner dimensions are the same—the number of columns in the first matrix must match the number of rows in the second.
  • The product of two matrices, A and B , is obtained by multiplying each entry in row 1 of A by each entry in column 1 of B ; then multiply each entry of row 1 of A by each entry in columns 2 of B , and so on. See [link] and [link] .
  • Many real-world problems can often be solved using matrices. See [link] .
  • We can use a calculator to perform matrix operations after saving each matrix as a matrix variable. See [link] .

Section exercises

Verbal

Can we add any two matrices together? If so, explain why; if not, explain why not and give an example of two matrices that cannot be added together.

No, they must have the same dimensions. An example would include two matrices of different dimensions. One cannot add the following two matrices because the first is a 2 × 2 matrix and the second is a 2 × 3 matrix. [ 1 2 3 4 ] + [ 6 5 4 3 2 1 ] has no sum.

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Can we multiply any column matrix by any row matrix? Explain why or why not.

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Can both the products A B and B A be defined? If so, explain how; if not, explain why.

Yes, if the dimensions of A are m × n and the dimensions of B are n × m , both products will be defined.

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Can any two matrices of the same size be multiplied? If so, explain why, and if not, explain why not and give an example of two matrices of the same size that cannot be multiplied together.

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Does matrix multiplication commute? That is, does A B = B A ? If so, prove why it does. If not, explain why it does not.

Not necessarily. To find A B , we multiply the first row of A by the first column of B to get the first entry of A B . To find B A , we multiply the first row of B by the first column of A to get the first entry of B A . Thus, if those are unequal, then the matrix multiplication does not commute.

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Algebraic

For the following exercises, use the matrices below and perform the matrix addition or subtraction. Indicate if the operation is undefined.

A = [ 1 3 0 7 ] , B = [ 2 14 22 6 ] , C = [ 1 5 8 92 12 6 ] , D = [ 10 14 7 2 5 61 ] , E = [ 6 12 14 5 ] , F = [ 0 9 78 17 15 4 ]

C + D

[ 11 19 15 94 17 67 ]

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D B

Undidentified; dimensions do not match

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For the following exercises, use the matrices below to perform scalar multiplication.

A = [ 4 6 13 12 ] , B = [ 3 9 21 12 0 64 ] , C = [ 16 3 7 18 90 5 3 29 ] , D = [ 18 12 13 8 14 6 7 4 21 ]

3 B

[ 9 27 63 36 0 192 ]

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−4 C

[ −64 −12 −28 −72 −360 −20 −12 −116 ]

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100 D

[ 1 , 800 1 , 200 1 , 300 800 1 , 400 600 700 400 2 , 100 ]

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For the following exercises, use the matrices below to perform matrix multiplication.

A = [ −1 5 3 2 ] , B = [ 3 6 4 −8 0 12 ] , C = [ 4 10 −2 6 5 9 ] , D = [ 2 −3 12 9 3 1 0 8 −10 ]

B D

[ 60 41 2 −16 120 −216 ]

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C B

[ −68 24 136 −54 −12 64 −57 30 128 ]

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For the following exercises, use the matrices below to perform the indicated operation if possible. If not possible, explain why the operation cannot be performed.

A = [ 2 −5 6 7 ] , B = [ −9 6 −4 2 ] , C = [ 0 9 7 1 ] , D = [ −8 7 −5 4 3 2 0 9 2 ] , E = [ 4 5 3 7 −6 −5 1 0 9 ]

4 A + 5 D

Undefined; dimensions do not match.

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3 D + 4 E

[ −8 41 −3 40 −15 −14 4 27 42 ]

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100 D −10 E

[ −840 650 −530 330 360 250 −10 900 110 ]

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For the following exercises, use the matrices below to perform the indicated operation if possible. If not possible, explain why the operation cannot be performed. (Hint: A 2 = A A )

A = [ −10 20 5 25 ] , B = [ 40 10 −20 30 ] , C = [ −1 0 0 −1 1 0 ]

B A

[ −350 1 , 050 350 350 ]

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B C

Undefined; inner dimensions do not match.

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B 2

[ 1 , 400 700 −1 , 400 700 ]

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B 2 A 2

[ 332 , 500 927 , 500 −227 , 500 87 , 500 ]

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( A B ) 2

[ 490 , 000 0 0 490 , 000 ]

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For the following exercises, use the matrices below to perform the indicated operation if possible. If not possible, explain why the operation cannot be performed. (Hint: A 2 = A A )

A = [ 1 0 2 3 ] , B = [ −2 3 4 −1 1 −5 ] , C = [ 0.5 0.1 1 0.2 −0.5 0.3 ] , D = [ 1 0 −1 −6 7 5 4 2 1 ]

A B

[ −2 3 4 −7 9 −7 ]

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B D

[ −4 29 21 −27 −3 1 ]

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D 2

[ −3 −2 −2 −28 59 46 −4 16 7 ]

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D 3

[ 1 −18 −9 −198 505 369 −72 126 91 ]

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A ( B C )

[ 0 1.6 9 −1 ]

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Technology

For the following exercises, use the matrices below to perform the indicated operation if possible. If not possible, explain why the operation cannot be performed. Use a calculator to verify your solution.

A = [ −2 0 9 1 8 −3 0.5 4 5 ] , B = [ 0.5 3 0 −4 1 6 8 7 2 ] , C = [ 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 ]

B A

[ 2 24 −4.5 12 32 −9 −8 64 61 ]

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B C

[ 0.5 3 0.5 2 1 2 10 7 10 ]

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Extensions

For the following exercises, use the matrix below to perform the indicated operation on the given matrix.

B = [ 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 ]

B 2

[ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ]

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B 4

[ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ]

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Using the above questions, find a formula for B n . Test the formula for B 201 and B 202 , using a calculator.

B n = { [ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ] , n even, [ 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 ] , n odd .

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Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
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Dominic
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Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
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_½+⅔-¾
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The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
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Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
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x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
×/×+9+6/1
Debbie
Q2 x+(x+2)+(x+4)=60 3x+6=60 3x+6-6=60-6 3x=54 3x/3=54/3 x=18 :. The numbers are 18,20 and 22
Naagmenkoma
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
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corri
X=16
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Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
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16
Makan
x=16
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use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
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4
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x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
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Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
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Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
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x+2y-z=7
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-1
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Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, College algebra. OpenStax CNX. Feb 06, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11759/1.3
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