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Evaluating a natural logarithm using a calculator

Evaluate y = ln ( 500 ) to four decimal places using a calculator.

  • Press [LN] .
  • Enter 500 , followed by [ ) ] .
  • Press [ENTER] .

Rounding to four decimal places, ln ( 500 ) 6.2146

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Evaluate ln ( −500 ) .

It is not possible to take the logarithm of a negative number in the set of real numbers.

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Access this online resource for additional instruction and practice with logarithms.

Key equations

Definition of the logarithmic function For     x > 0 , b > 0 , b 1 ,
y = log b ( x )   if and only if   b y = x .
Definition of the common logarithm For   x > 0 , y = log ( x )   if and only if   10 y = x .
Definition of the natural logarithm For   x > 0 , y = ln ( x )   if and only if   e y = x .

Key concepts

  • The inverse of an exponential function is a logarithmic function, and the inverse of a logarithmic function is an exponential function.
  • Logarithmic equations can be written in an equivalent exponential form, using the definition of a logarithm. See [link] .
  • Exponential equations can be written in their equivalent logarithmic form using the definition of a logarithm See [link] .
  • Logarithmic functions with base b can be evaluated mentally using previous knowledge of powers of b . See [link] and [link] .
  • Common logarithms can be evaluated mentally using previous knowledge of powers of 10. See [link] .
  • When common logarithms cannot be evaluated mentally, a calculator can be used. See [link] .
  • Real-world exponential problems with base 10 can be rewritten as a common logarithm and then evaluated using a calculator. See [link] .
  • Natural logarithms can be evaluated using a calculator [link] .

Section exercises


What is a base b logarithm? Discuss the meaning by interpreting each part of the equivalent equations b y = x and log b x = y for b > 0 , b 1.

A logarithm is an exponent. Specifically, it is the exponent to which a base b is raised to produce a given value. In the expressions given, the base b has the same value. The exponent, y , in the expression b y can also be written as the logarithm, log b x , and the value of x is the result of raising b to the power of y .

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How is the logarithmic function f ( x ) = log b x related to the exponential function g ( x ) = b x ? What is the result of composing these two functions?

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How can the logarithmic equation log b x = y be solved for x using the properties of exponents?

Since the equation of a logarithm is equivalent to an exponential equation, the logarithm can be converted to the exponential equation b y = x , and then properties of exponents can be applied to solve for x .

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Discuss the meaning of the common logarithm. What is its relationship to a logarithm with base b , and how does the notation differ?

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Discuss the meaning of the natural logarithm. What is its relationship to a logarithm with base b , and how does the notation differ?

The natural logarithm is a special case of the logarithm with base b in that the natural log always has base e . Rather than notating the natural logarithm as log e ( x ) , the notation used is ln ( x ) .

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For the following exercises, rewrite each equation in exponential form.

log x ( 64 ) = y

x y = 64

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Questions & Answers

can you not take the square root of a negative number
Sharon Reply
No because a negative times a negative is a positive. No matter what you do you can never multiply the same number by itself and end with a negative
Actually you can. you get what's called an Imaginary number denoted by i which is represented on the complex plane. The reply above would be correct if we were still confined to the "real" number line.
Suppose P= {-3,1,3} Q={-3,-2-1} and R= {-2,2,3}.what is the intersection
Elaine Reply
can I get some pretty basic questions
Ama Reply
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
is precalculus needed to take caculus
Amara Reply
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
Mars Reply
what is the domain of f(x)=x-4/x^2-2x-15 then
Conney Reply
x is different from -5&3
All real x except 5 and - 3
how to prroved cos⁴x-sin⁴x= cos²x-sin²x are equal
jeric Reply
Don't think that you can.
By using some imaginary no.
how do you provided cos⁴x-sin⁴x = cos²x-sin²x are equal
jeric Reply
What are the question marks for?
Someone should please solve it for me Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5 simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
Abena Reply
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15 Second one, I got Root 2 Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power) I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
Ashley Reply
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
ok, one moment
how do I post your graph for you?
it won't let me send an image?
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
thanks Tommy
0=3x-2 2=3x x=3/2 then . y=3/2X-2 I think
co ordinates for x x=0,(-2,0) x=1,(1,1) x=2,(2,4)
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
Fiston Reply
Where do the rays point?
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
Ahlicia Reply
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
Carlos Reply
so good
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
strategies to form the general term
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
Mary Reply
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
what is f(x)=
Karim Reply
I don't understand
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
It is the  that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Now it shows, go figure?
Practice Key Terms 3

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