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Section exercises

Verbal

What role does the horizontal asymptote of an exponential function play in telling us about the end behavior of the graph?

An asymptote is a line that the graph of a function approaches, as x either increases or decreases without bound. The horizontal asymptote of an exponential function tells us the limit of the function’s values as the independent variable gets either extremely large or extremely small.

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What is the advantage of knowing how to recognize transformations of the graph of a parent function algebraically?

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Algebraic

The graph of f ( x ) = 3 x is reflected about the y -axis and stretched vertically by a factor of 4. What is the equation of the new function, g ( x ) ? State its y -intercept, domain, and range.

g ( x ) = 4 ( 3 ) x ; y -intercept: ( 0 , 4 ) ; Domain: all real numbers; Range: all real numbers greater than 0.

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The graph of f ( x ) = ( 1 2 ) x is reflected about the y -axis and compressed vertically by a factor of 1 5 . What is the equation of the new function, g ( x ) ? State its y -intercept, domain, and range.

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The graph of f ( x ) = 10 x is reflected about the x -axis and shifted upward 7 units. What is the equation of the new function, g ( x ) ? State its y -intercept, domain, and range.

g ( x ) = 10 x + 7 ; y -intercept: ( 0 , 6 ) ; Domain: all real numbers; Range: all real numbers less than 7.

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The graph of f ( x ) = ( 1.68 ) x is shifted right 3 units, stretched vertically by a factor of 2 , reflected about the x -axis, and then shifted downward 3 units. What is the equation of the new function, g ( x ) ? State its y -intercept (to the nearest thousandth), domain, and range.

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The graph of f ( x ) = 2 ( 1 4 ) x 20 is shifted left 2 units, stretched vertically by a factor of 4 , reflected about the x -axis, and then shifted downward 4 units. What is the equation of the new function, g ( x ) ? State its y -intercept, domain, and range.

g ( x ) = 2 ( 1 4 ) x ; y -intercept: ( 0 ,  2 ) ; Domain: all real numbers; Range: all real numbers greater than 0.

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Graphical

For the following exercises, graph the function and its reflection about the y -axis on the same axes, and give the y -intercept.

g ( x ) = 2 ( 0.25 ) x

Graph of two functions, g(-x)=-2(0.25)^(-x) in blue and g(x)=-2(0.25)^x in orange.

y -intercept: ( 0 , 2 )

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h ( x ) = 6 ( 1.75 ) x

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For the following exercises, graph each set of functions on the same axes.

f ( x ) = 3 ( 1 4 ) x , g ( x ) = 3 ( 2 ) x , and h ( x ) = 3 ( 4 ) x

Graph of three functions, g(x)=3(2)^(x) in blue, h(x)=3(4)^(x) in green, and f(x)=3(1/4)^(x) in orange.
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f ( x ) = 1 4 ( 3 ) x , g ( x ) = 2 ( 3 ) x , and h ( x ) = 4 ( 3 ) x

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For the following exercises, match each function with one of the graphs in [link] .

Graph of six exponential functions.

f ( x ) = 2 ( 0.69 ) x

B

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f ( x ) = 2 ( 0.81 ) x

A

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f ( x ) = 2 ( 1.59 ) x

E

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For the following exercises, use the graphs shown in [link] . All have the form f ( x ) = a b x .

Graph of six exponential functions.

Which graph has the largest value for b ?

D

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Which graph has the smallest value for b ?

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Which graph has the largest value for a ?

C

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Which graph has the smallest value for a ?

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For the following exercises, graph the function and its reflection about the x -axis on the same axes.

f ( x ) = 3 ( 0.75 ) x 1

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f ( x ) = 4 ( 2 ) x + 2

Graph of two functions, -f(x)=(4)(2)^(x)-2 in blue and f(x)=(-4)(2)^x+1 in orange.
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For the following exercises, graph the transformation of f ( x ) = 2 x . Give the horizontal asymptote, the domain, and the range.

h ( x ) = 2 x + 3

Graph of h(x)=2^(x)+3.

Horizontal asymptote: h ( x ) = 3 ; Domain: all real numbers; Range: all real numbers strictly greater than 3.

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For the following exercises, describe the end behavior of the graphs of the functions.

f ( x ) = 5 ( 4 ) x 1

As x , f ( x ) ;
As x , f ( x ) 1

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f ( x ) = 3 ( 1 2 ) x 2

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f ( x ) = 3 ( 4 ) x + 2

As x , f ( x ) 2 ;
As x , f ( x )

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For the following exercises, start with the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x . Then write a function that results from the given transformation.

Shift f ( x ) 4 units upward

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Shift f ( x ) 3 units downward

f ( x ) = 4 x 3

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Shift f ( x ) 2 units left

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Shift f ( x ) 5 units right

f ( x ) = 4 x 5

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Reflect f ( x ) about the x -axis

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Reflect f ( x ) about the y -axis

f ( x ) = 4 x

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For the following exercises, each graph is a transformation of y = 2 x . Write an equation describing the transformation.

For the following exercises, find an exponential equation for the graph.

Numeric

For the following exercises, evaluate the exponential functions for the indicated value of x .

g ( x ) = 1 3 ( 7 ) x 2 for g ( 6 ) .

g ( 6 ) = 800 + 1 3 800.3333

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f ( x ) = 4 ( 2 ) x 1 2 for f ( 5 ) .

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h ( x ) = 1 2 ( 1 2 ) x + 6 for h ( 7 ) .

h ( 7 ) = 58

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Technology

For the following exercises, use a graphing calculator to approximate the solutions of the equation. Round to the nearest thousandth. f ( x ) = a b x + d .

50 = ( 1 2 ) x

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116 = 1 4 ( 1 8 ) x

x 2.953

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5 = 3 ( 1 2 ) x 1 2

x 0.222

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30 = 4 ( 2 ) x + 2 + 2

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Extensions

Explore and discuss the graphs of F ( x ) = ( b ) x and G ( x ) = ( 1 b ) x . Then make a conjecture about the relationship between the graphs of the functions b x and ( 1 b ) x for any real number b > 0.

The graph of G ( x ) = ( 1 b ) x is the refelction about the y -axis of the graph of F ( x ) = b x ; For any real number b > 0 and function f ( x ) = b x , the graph of ( 1 b ) x is the the reflection about the y -axis, F ( x ) .

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Prove the conjecture made in the previous exercise.

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Explore and discuss the graphs of f ( x ) = 4 x , g ( x ) = 4 x 2 , and h ( x ) = ( 1 16 ) 4 x . Then make a conjecture about the relationship between the graphs of the functions b x and ( 1 b n ) b x for any real number n and real number b > 0.

The graphs of g ( x ) and h ( x ) are the same and are a horizontal shift to the right of the graph of f ( x ) ; For any real number n , real number b > 0 , and function f ( x ) = b x , the graph of ( 1 b n ) b x is the horizontal shift f ( x n ) .

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Prove the conjecture made in the previous exercise.

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Questions & Answers

The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1), and the lenght of the major axis is 26
Rima Reply
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
Rima
I done know
Joe
What kind of answer is that😑?
Rima
I had just woken up when i got this message
Joe
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
Rima
i have a question.
Abdul
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
Abdul
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
Nare
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
Abdul
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
Abdul
I have a question
juweeriya
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
mustapha
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Brittany Reply
how do you find the period of a sine graph
Imani Reply
Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
Am
I will try that thank u
Imani
Case of Equilateral Hyperbola
Jhon Reply
ok
Zander
ok
Shella
f(x)=4x+2, find f(3)
Benetta
f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14
lamoussa
14
Vedant
pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14
Devante
8x=40
Chris
Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0
Baptiste Reply
the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Esther Reply
divide simplify each answer 3/2÷5/4
Momo Reply
divide simplify each answer 25/3÷5/12
Momo
how can are find the domain and range of a relations
austin Reply
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Morolake
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and $2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and $0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
Diddy Reply
6000
Robert
more than 6000
Robert
can I see the picture
Zairen Reply
How would you find if a radical function is one to one?
Peighton Reply
how to understand calculus?
Jenica Reply
with doing calculus
SLIMANE
Thanks po.
Jenica
Hey I am new to precalculus, and wanted clarification please on what sine is as I am floored by the terms in this app? I don't mean to sound stupid but I have only completed up to college algebra.
rachel Reply
I don't know if you are looking for a deeper answer or not, but the sine of an angle in a right triangle is the length of the opposite side to the angle in question divided by the length of the hypotenuse of said triangle.
Marco
can you give me sir tips to quickly understand precalculus. Im new too in that topic. Thanks
Jenica
if you remember sine, cosine, and tangent from geometry, all the relationships are the same but they use x y and r instead (x is adjacent, y is opposite, and r is hypotenuse).
Natalie
it is better to use unit circle than triangle .triangle is only used for acute angles but you can begin with. Download any application named"unit circle" you find in it all you need. unit circle is a circle centred at origine (0;0) with radius r= 1.
SLIMANE
What is domain
johnphilip
the standard equation of the ellipse that has vertices (0,-4)&(0,4) and foci (0, -15)&(0,15) it's standard equation is x^2 + y^2/16 =1 tell my why is it only x^2? why is there no a^2?
Reena Reply
what is foci?
Reena Reply
This term is plural for a focus, it is used for conic sections. For more detail or other math questions. I recommend researching on "Khan academy" or watching "The Organic Chemistry Tutor" YouTube channel.
Chris

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Source:  OpenStax, Precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Jan 19, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11667/1.6
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