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23 . There are many lurking variables that could influence the observed differences in test scores. Perhaps the boys, on average, have taken more math courses than the girls, and the girls have taken more English classes than the boys. Perhaps the boys have been encouraged by their families and teachers to prepare for a career in math and science, and thus have put more effort into studying math, while the girls have been encouraged to prepare for fields like communication and psychology that are more focused on language use. A study design would have to control for these and other potential lurking variables (anything that could explain the observed difference in test scores, other than the genetic explanation) in order to draw a scientifically sound conclusion about genetic differences.

24 . To use random assignment, you would have to be able to assign people to either smoke or not smoke. Because smoking has many harmful effects, this would not be an ethical experiment. Instead, we study people who have chosen to smoke, and compare them to others who have chosen not to smoke, and try to control for the other ways those two groups may differ (lurking variables).

25 . Sources of bias include the fact that not everyone has a telephone, that cell phone numbers are often not listed in published directories, and that an individual might not be at home at the time of the phone call; all these factors make it likely that the respondents to the survey will not be representative of the population as a whole.

26 . Research subjects should not be coerced into participation, and offering extra credit in exchange for participation could be construed as coercion. In addition, this method will result in a volunteer sample, which cannot be assumed to be representative of the population as a whole.

2.1: stem-and leaf graphs (stemplots), line graphs, and bar graphs

27 . The value 740 is an outlier, because the exams were graded on a scale of 0 to 100, and 740 is far outside that range. It may be a data entry error, with the actual score being 74, so the professor should check that exam again to see what the actual score was.

28 .

Stem Leaf
6 2 4 5 5 8
7 0 2 2 4 5 5 5 6 8 8
8 1 3 3 4 5 7 8
9 2 5 8 8
10 0 0

29 . Most scores on this exam were in the range of 70–89, with a few scoring in the 60–69 range, and a few in the 90–100 range.

2.2: histograms, frequency polygons, and time series graphs

30 . R F = 7 35 = 0.2

31 . The range will be 0.5–1.5, and the central point will be 1.

32 . Range 1.5–2.5, central point 2; range 2.5–3.5, central point 3; range 3.5–4.5, central point 4; range 4.5–5.5., central point 5.

33 . The bar from 3.5 to 4.5, with a central point of 4, will be tallest; its height will be nine, because there are nine students taking four courses.

34 . The histogram is a better choice, because income is a continuous variable.

35 . A bar graph is the better choice, because this data is categorical rather than continuous.

2.3: measures of the location of the data

36 . Your daughter scored better than 80 percent of the students in her grade on math and better than 76 percent of the students in reading. Both scores are very good, and place her in the upper quartile, but her math score is slightly better in relation to her peers than her reading score.

Questions & Answers

hindi notes please😫🙏🙏💓
Uttam Reply
hindi notes please😫🙏🙏💓
Uttam
How can I calculate the Class Mark, Relative frequency and the cumulative frequency on a frequency table?
IJOGI Reply
what is the important in business planning and economics
mahelt Reply
explain the limitation and scope of statistics
mahelt
statistics is limited to use where data can be measured quantitatively. statistics scope is wider such as in economic planning, medical science etc.
Gurpreet
can you send me mcq type questions
Tanuj Reply
Yas
Umar
which books are best to learn applied statistics for data science/ML
Gurpreet
A population consists of five numbers 2,3,6,8,11.consists all possible samples of size two which can be drawn with replacement from this population. calculate the S.E of sample means
Karunesh Reply
A particular train reaches the destination in time in 75 per cent of the times.A person travels 5 times in that train.Find probability that he will reach the destination in time, for all the 5 times.
Anish Reply
0.237
Amresh
explain that this answer-0.237
umesh
p(x=5)= 5C0 p^5 q^0 solve this
Amresh
please sir.
umesh
ok
umesh
5C0=1 p^5= (3/4)^5 q^0=(1/4)^0
Amresh
Hint(0.75 in time and 0.25 not in time)
kamugi
what is standard deviation?
Jawed Reply
It is the measure of the variation of certain values from the Mean (Center) of a frequency distribution of sample values for a particular Variable.
Dominic
what is the number of x
Godgift Reply
10
Elicia
Javed Arif
Jawed
how will you know if a group of data set is a sample or population
Kingsley Reply
population is the whole set and the sample is the subset of population.
umair
if the data set is drawn out of a larger set it is a sample and if it is itself the whole complete set it can be treated as population.
Bhavika
hello everyone if I have the data set which contains measurements of each part during 10 years, may I say that it's the population or it's still a sample because it doesn't contain my measurements in the future? thanks
Alexander
Pls I hv a problem on t test is there anyone who can help?
Peggy
What's your problem Peggy Abang
Dominic
Bhavika is right
Dominic
what is the problem peggy?
Bhavika
hi
Sandeep
Hello
adeagbo
hi
Bhavika
hii Bhavika
Dar
Hi eny population has a special definition. if that data set had all of characteristics of definition, that is population. otherwise that is a sample
Hoshyar
three coins are tossed. find the probability of no head
Kanwal Reply
three coins are tossed consecutively or what ?
umair
p(getting no head)=1/8
umair
or .125 is the probability of getting no head when 3 coins are tossed
umair
🤣🤣🤣
Simone
what is two tailed test
Umar Reply
if the diameter will be greater than 3 cm then the bullet will not fit in the barrel of the gun so you are bothered for both the sides.
umair
in this test you are worried on both the ends
umair
lets say you are designing a bullet for thw gun od diameter equals 3cm.if the diameter of the bullet is less than 3 cm then you wont be able to shoot it
umair
In order to apply weddles rule for numerical integration what is minimum number of ordinates
Anjali Reply
excuse me?
Gabriel
why?
Tade
didn't understand the question though.
Gabriel
which question? ?
Tade
We have rules of numerical integration like Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rules, Boole's rule and Weddle rule for n =1,2,3,4 and 6 but for n=5?
John
Someone should help me please, how can I calculate the Class Mark, Relative frequency and the cumulative frequency on a frequency table?
IJOGI
geometric mean of two numbers 4 and 16 is:
iphone Reply
10
umair
really
iphone
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is:
iphone
sorry 8 is the geometric mean of 4,16
umair
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is
iphone
can you please expalin the whole question ?
umair
mcq
iphone
h
iphone
can you please post the picture of that ?
umair
how
iphone
hello
John
10 now
John
how to find out the value
srijth Reply
can you be more specific ?
umair
yes
KrishnaReddy
what is the difference between inferential and descriptive statistics
Eze Reply
descriptive statistics gives you the result on the the data like you can calculate various things like variance,mean,median etc. however, inferential stats is involved in prediction of future trends using the previous stored data.
umair
if you need more help i am up for the help.
umair
Thanks a lot
Anjali
Inferential Statistics involves drawing conclusions on a population based on analysis of a sample. Descriptive statistics summarises or describes your current data as numerical calculations or graphs.
fred
my pleasure😊. Helping others offers me satisfaction 😊
umair
inferential statistics the results of the statistical analysis of the sample data of the population are used for generalization or decision making about the population why descriptive statistics, the analyzed data are presented without generalization or decision making about the population.
IJOGI

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Source:  OpenStax, Introductory statistics. OpenStax CNX. May 06, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11562/1.18
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