# 1.2 Data, sampling, and variation in data and sampling  (Page 3/56)

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Fall term 2007 (census day)
De Anza College Foothill College
Number Percent Number Percent
Full-time 9,200 40.9% Full-time 4,059 28.6%
Part-time 13,296 59.1% Part-time 10,124 71.4%
Total 22,496 100% Total 14,183 100%

Tables are a good way of organizing and displaying data. But graphs can be even more helpful in understanding the data. There are no strict rules concerning which graphs to use. Two graphs that are used to display qualitative data are pie charts and bar graphs.

In a pie chart , categories of data are represented by wedges in a circle and are proportional in size to the percent of individuals in each category.

In a bar graph , the length of the bar for each category is proportional to the number or percent of individuals in each category. Bars may be vertical or horizontal.

A Pareto chart consists of bars that are sorted into order by category size (largest to smallest).

Look at [link] and [link] and determine which graph (pie or bar) you think displays the comparisons better.

It is a good idea to look at a variety of graphs to see which is the most helpful in displaying the data. We might make different choices of what we think is the “best” graph depending on the data and the context. Our choice also depends on what we are using the data for.

## Percentages that add to more (or less) than 100%

Sometimes percentages add up to be more than 100% (or less than 100%). In the graph, the percentages add to more than 100% because students can be in more than one category. A bar graph is appropriate to compare the relative size of the categories. A pie chart cannot be used. It also could not be used if the percentages added to less than 100%.

De anza college spring 2010
Characteristic/Category Percent
Full-Time Students 40.9%
Students who intend to transfer to a 4-year educational institution 48.6%
Students under age 25 61.0%
TOTAL 150.5%

## Omitting categories/missing data

The table displays Ethnicity of Students but is missing the "Other/Unknown" category. This category contains people who did not feel they fit into any of the ethnicity categories or declined to respond. Notice that the frequencies do not add up to the total number of students. In this situation, create a bar graph and not a pie chart.

Ethnicity of students at de anza college fall term 2007 (census day)
Frequency Percent
Asian 8,794 36.1%
Black 1,412 5.8%
Filipino 1,298 5.3%
Hispanic 4,180 17.1%
Native American 146 0.6%
Pacific Islander 236 1.0%
White 5,978 24.5%
TOTAL 22,044 out of 24,382 90.4% out of 100%

The following graph is the same as the previous graph but the “Other/Unknown” percent (9.6%) has been included. The “Other/Unknown” category is large compared to some of the other categories (Native American, 0.6%, Pacific Islander 1.0%). This is important to know when we think about what the data are telling us.

This particular bar graph in [link] can be difficult to understand visually. The graph in [link] is a Pareto chart. The Pareto chart has the bars sorted from largest to smallest and is easier to read and interpret.

#### Questions & Answers

7.The following data give thenumber of car thefts that occurred in a city in the past 12 days. 63711438726915 Calculate therange, variance, and standard deviation.
Mitu Reply
express the confidence interval 81.4% ~8.5% in interval form
Xx Reply
a bad contain 3 red and 5 black balls another 4 red and 7 black balls, A ball is drawn from a bag selected at random, Find the probability that A is red?
Shazain Reply
The information is given as, 30% of customers shopping at SHOPNO will switch to DAILY SHOPPING every month on the other hand 40% of customers shopping at DAILY SHOPPING will switch to other every month. What is the probability that customers will switch from A to B for next two months?
sharmin Reply
Calculate correlation coefficient, where SP(xy) = 144; SS(x) = 739; SS(y) = 58. (2 Points)
Ashfat Reply
The information are given from a randomly selected sample of age of COVID-19 patients who have already survived. These information are collected from 200 persons. The summarized information are as, n= 20; ∑x = 490; s^2 = 40. Calculate 95% confident interval of mean age.
Ashfat
The mode of the density of power of signal is 3.5. Find the probability that the density of a random signal will be more than 2.5.
Ashfat
The average time needed to repair a mobile phone set is 2 hours. If a customer is in queue for half an hour, what is the probability that his set will be repaired within 1.6 hours?
Ashfat
A quality control specialist took a random sample of n = 10 pieces of gum and measured their thickness and found the mean 9 and variance 0.04. Do you think that the mean thickness of the spearmint gum it produces is 8.4
nazrul Reply
3. The following are the number of mails received in different days by different organizations: Days (x) : 23, 35, 38, 50, 34, 60, 41, 32, 53, 67. Number of mails (y) : 18, 40, 52, 45, 32, 55, 50, 48, 26, 25. i) Fit a regression line of y on x and test the significance of regression. ii) Estimate y
Atowar Reply
The number of problem creating computers of two laboratories are as follows: Number of computers: 48, 6, 10, 12, 30, 11, 49, 17, 10, 14, 38, 25, 15, 19, 40, 12. Number of computers: 12, 10, 26, 11, 42, 11, 13, 12, 18, 5, 14, 38. Are the two laboratories similar in respect of problem creating compute
Tamim Reply
Is the severity of the drug problem in high school the same for boys and girls? 85 boys and 70 girls were questioned and 34 of the boys and 14 of the girls admitted to having tried some sort of drug. What can be concluded at the 0.05 level?
Ashfat Reply
null rejected
Pratik
a quality control specialist took a random sample of n=10 pieces of gum and measured their thickness and found the mean 7.6 and standered deviation 0.10. Do you think that the mean thickness of the spearmint gum it produces is 7.5?
Shanto Reply
99. A one sample, one-tail t-test is conducted and the test statistic value is calculated to be 2.56. The degrees of freedom for the test are 10. Which of the following conclusions for the test would be correct? a
Niaz Reply
A one sample, one-tail t-test is conducted and the test statistic value is calculated to be 2.56. The degrees of freedom for the test are 10. Which of the following conclusions for the test would be correct?
Niaz
what is null Hypothesis
Niaz
what is null Hypothesis
Niaz
when median is greater than mode?
Hafiza Reply
hello
Amaano
is this app useful
Worthy
little bit 😭
G-
oh
Worthy
when tail is positive
Jungjoon
define hypothesis
Worthy
I'm struggling to type it's on my laptop...statistics
Yoliswa
types of averages .mean median mode quarantiles MCQ question
Rupa Reply
what a consider data?
JAGESH Reply
Out of 25 students, 15 are male. Is the overall proportion of male students 0.7 in AIUB? (4 Points)
Omer Reply
15/25=0.6 or 60% standard calculation
Andrea
A quality control specialist took a random sample of n = 10 pieces of gum and measured their thickness and found the mean 7.6 and variance 0.01. Do you think that the mean thickness of the spearmint gum it produces is 7.5? (4 Points)
Omer
10 gums mean = 7.6 variance= 0.01 standard deviation= ? what us the data set?
Andrea
0.6
Rubina

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