# 1.2 Data, sampling, and variation in data and sampling  (Page 3/56)

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Fall term 2007 (census day)
De Anza College Foothill College
Number Percent Number Percent
Full-time 9,200 40.9% Full-time 4,059 28.6%
Part-time 13,296 59.1% Part-time 10,124 71.4%
Total 22,496 100% Total 14,183 100%

Tables are a good way of organizing and displaying data. But graphs can be even more helpful in understanding the data. There are no strict rules concerning which graphs to use. Two graphs that are used to display qualitative data are pie charts and bar graphs.

In a pie chart , categories of data are represented by wedges in a circle and are proportional in size to the percent of individuals in each category.

In a bar graph , the length of the bar for each category is proportional to the number or percent of individuals in each category. Bars may be vertical or horizontal.

A Pareto chart consists of bars that are sorted into order by category size (largest to smallest).

Look at [link] and [link] and determine which graph (pie or bar) you think displays the comparisons better.

It is a good idea to look at a variety of graphs to see which is the most helpful in displaying the data. We might make different choices of what we think is the “best” graph depending on the data and the context. Our choice also depends on what we are using the data for.

## Percentages that add to more (or less) than 100%

Sometimes percentages add up to be more than 100% (or less than 100%). In the graph, the percentages add to more than 100% because students can be in more than one category. A bar graph is appropriate to compare the relative size of the categories. A pie chart cannot be used. It also could not be used if the percentages added to less than 100%.

De anza college spring 2010
Characteristic/Category Percent
Full-Time Students 40.9%
Students who intend to transfer to a 4-year educational institution 48.6%
Students under age 25 61.0%
TOTAL 150.5%

## Omitting categories/missing data

The table displays Ethnicity of Students but is missing the "Other/Unknown" category. This category contains people who did not feel they fit into any of the ethnicity categories or declined to respond. Notice that the frequencies do not add up to the total number of students. In this situation, create a bar graph and not a pie chart.

Ethnicity of students at de anza college fall term 2007 (census day)
Frequency Percent
Asian 8,794 36.1%
Black 1,412 5.8%
Filipino 1,298 5.3%
Hispanic 4,180 17.1%
Native American 146 0.6%
Pacific Islander 236 1.0%
White 5,978 24.5%
TOTAL 22,044 out of 24,382 90.4% out of 100%

The following graph is the same as the previous graph but the “Other/Unknown” percent (9.6%) has been included. The “Other/Unknown” category is large compared to some of the other categories (Native American, 0.6%, Pacific Islander 1.0%). This is important to know when we think about what the data are telling us.

This particular bar graph in [link] can be difficult to understand visually. The graph in [link] is a Pareto chart. The Pareto chart has the bars sorted from largest to smallest and is easier to read and interpret.

if x is a continuous random variable and` c` is a constant then p(x=c)
the length of human pregnancies from conception to birth approximates a normal distribution with a mean of 266days and a standard deviation of 16days.(i) what length of time marks the shortest 10%of all pregnancies ?
Neha
27.6390625 days
festus
steps?
Neha
how can I solve a Hypothetic problem that provide sample data such as 45,3_,45,28,17 ect...what is the first step
Leticia
Where can we check the answers to the review questions?
Calculate theta if one minus theta times hundred percent is equal to ninety five cI
what's poison distribution
what's poissan distribution?
Abdulhakim
It's Poisson. It's a discrete probability distribution that is used to find the probability of an event x happening within a fixed interval of time. E. g. If a shop sells an average of 5 goods on Saturdays, what is the probability that the shop will sell 7 goods on a particular Saturday.
samoyo
which kind of work do statistics do
how so I know the right answers
?
a. l. bowley definition
what are events in statistics
Like a roll of a dice! Or a coin toss. Or a gender reveal party!
what is statistics
can anyone explain it better for me
the science of statistics deal with the collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data
saquib
I am also studying statistics
saquib
Correlation regression, explain it to me in short.
guillio
correlation is used to find relationship between two and dependent ), regression used for predicting the future by analyzing past data
Arun
correlation is used to find relationship between two variables
Arun
dependent and independent eg. profit is dependent on sales
Arun
Statistics has been designed as the mathematical science of making decisions and drawing conclusions from data in situations of uncertainty. It includes the designings of experiments, collection, organization, summarization snd interpretation of numerical data.
Aliya
excellent Aliya..... good...Arun....
IRFAN
The degree or strength of relationship(interdependence) between the variables is called "correlation ". Examples: heights and weights of children, ages of husbands and ages of wives at the time of their marriages, marks of students in mathematics and in statistics.
Aliya
The dependence of one variable (dependent variable) one one or more independent variables ( independent variables) is called "regression ".
Aliya
simply regression and multiple regression are the types of regression.
Aliya
IRFAN HAIDER thanks
Aliya
hi
nabil
I need help with a math problem
nabil
shoot
umair
9. The scatterplot below relates wine consumption (in liters of alcohol from wine per person per year) and death rate from heart disease (in deaths per 100,000 people) for 19 developed countries.
nabil
For questions e. and f. use the equation of the Least-Square Regression LSR line is: y = −22.97x+260.56 e. Circle the correct choice and fill in the blank in the following statement: As wine consumption increases by 1 liter of alcohol per person per year, the predicted death
nabil
Rate from heart disease increases/decreases by ______deaths per ________people.
nabil
is a scientific study of collection analysis interpretation and also presenting it by researchers.
Murtala
frequency distribution
noun STATISTICS a mathematical function showing the number of instances in which a variable takes each of its possible values.
Robin
ok
Common language-- taking a bunch of information and seeing if it is related or not to other info
Mandy
Does standard deviation have measuring unit?
Mohamed
yes, the measuring unit of the data you are looking at, for example centimetres for height.
Emma
thanks
Mohamed
is that easy to plot a graph between three axis?
Mohamed
yes we can but we do not have that much effective tools. If the graph is normal or less complicated then it is plotted effectively otherwise it will give you nightmare.
umair
whats the difference between discrete and contineous data
umar
Discrete variables are variables that can assume finite number of values. Continuous variables are variables that can assume infinite number of values
Mike
i will give you an example: {0,4,84} it contains discrete or limited values like it can also contain boolean values{true,false} or {0,1} and continuous are like {1,2,3,4,5......} , {0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4...........}
umair
a no. of values which are countable are called discrete variables on the other hand, a no. of values which are not countable are called continuous variables
Aliya
Yup, I would like to support Mr.Umair's argument by saying that it can only apply if we have a 3-D graph,otherwise a plane graph will not apply at all
festus
Aliya and Mike thnks to both of you ❤❤
umar
what's variance
what's case control study?
Shakilla
hi
Noman
?
Sulaiman
* Consider a study of 300 males aged 18 years or higher conducted in a city called D. The study indicates that there are 10% smokers. Answer the following questions: What is the sample? What is the population? What is the variable of interest? What is the scale of measurement used for the variab
Abdulhakim
Consider a study of 300 males aged 18 years or higher conducted in a city called D. The study indicates that there are 10% smokers. Answer the following questions: What is the sample? What is the population? What is the variable of interest? What is the scale of measurement used for the variabl
Abdulhakim
what is covariance
In probability theory and statistics, covariance is a measure of the joint variability of two random variables.[1] If the greater values of one variable mainly correspond with the greater values of the other variable, and the same holds for the lesser values, (i.e., the variables tend to show simila
Robin
Economics department, faculty of social sciences, NOUN. You are required to calculate: the covariance and State whether the covariance is positive or negative. (11½ marks) Observation E D 1 15 17.24 2 16 15.00 3 8 14.91 4 6 4.50 5 15 18.00 6 12 6.29 7 12 19.23 8 18 18.69 9 12 7.21 10 20 4
Florence
In probability theory and statistics, covariance is a measure of the joint variability of two random variables.
Robin
what is the purpose of statistics and why it is important that statistics to be a solo and one complete field?
to organize,analyze and interpret information in order to make decision
Berema
what is noun?
so simple. the name of any person,place or thing.
Edu-info
Using the Chi-square test, two coins were flipped a hundred times. What will be the chances of getting a head and getting a tale? Given observed values is 62 heads and 38 tails. Expected value is 50 heads, 50 tails. Is the difference due to chance or a significant error? a. Draw your hypothesis