Null Hypothesis
H
_{0} : The population correlation coefficient IS NOT significantly different from zero. There IS NOT a significant linear relationship(correlation) between
x and
y in the population.
Alternate Hypothesis
H
_{a} : The population correlation coefficient IS significantly DIFFERENT FROM zero. There IS A SIGNIFICANT LINEAR RELATIONSHIP (correlation) between
x and
y in the population.
Drawing a conclusion:
There are two methods of making the decision. The two methods are equivalent and give the same result.
Method 1: Using the
p -value
Method 2: Using a table of critical values
In this chapter of this textbook, we will always use a significance level of 5%,
α = 0.05
Note
Using the
p -value method, you could choose any appropriate significance level you want; you are not limited to using
α = 0.05. But the table of critical values provided in this textbook assumes that we are using a significance level of 5%,
α = 0.05. (If we wanted to use a different significance level than 5% with the critical value method, we would need different tables of critical values that are not provided in this textbook.)
Method 1: using a
p -value to make a decision
To calculate the
p -value using LinRegTTEST:
On the LinRegTTEST input screen, on the line prompt for
β or
ρ , highlight "
≠ 0 "
The output screen shows the p-value on the line that reads "p =".
(Most computer statistical software can calculate the
p -value.)
If the
p -value is less than the significance level (
α = 0.05):
Decision: Reject the null hypothesis.
Conclusion: "There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between
x and
y because the correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero."
If the
p -value is not less than the significance level (
α = 0.05)
Decision: DO NOT REJECT the null hypothesis.
Conclusion: "There is insufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between
x and
y because the correlation coefficient is NOT significantly different from zero."
Calculation notes:
You will use technology to calculate the
p -value. The following describes the calculations to compute the test statistics and the
p -value:
The
p -value is calculated using a
t -distribution with
n - 2 degrees of freedom.
The formula for the test statistic is
$t=\frac{r\sqrt{n-2}}{\sqrt{1-{r}^{2}}}$ . The value of the test statistic,
t , is shown in the computer or calculator output along with the
p -value. The test statistic
t has the same sign as the correlation coefficient
r .
The
p -value is the combined area in both tails.
An alternative way to calculate the
p -value
(p) given by LinRegTTest is the command 2*tcdf(abs(t),10^99, n-2) in 2nd DISTR.
The line of best fit is: ŷ = -173.51 + 4.83
x with
r = 0.6631 and there are
n = 11 data points.
Can the regression line be used for prediction?
Given a third exam score (
x value), can we
use the line to predict the final exam score (predicted
y value)?
H
_{0} :
ρ = 0
H
_{a} :
ρ ≠ 0
α = 0.05
The
p -value is 0.026 (from LinRegTTest on your calculator or from computer software).
The
p -value, 0.026, is less than the significance level of
α = 0.05.
Decision: Reject the Null Hypothesis
H
_{0}
Conclusion: There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between the third exam score (
x ) and the final exam score (
y ) because the correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero.
which books are best to learn applied statistics for data science/ML
Gurpreet
A population consists of five numbers 2,3,6,8,11.consists all possible samples of size two which can be drawn with replacement from this population. calculate the S.E of sample means
A particular train reaches the destination in time in 75 per cent of the times.A person travels 5 times in that train.Find probability that he will reach the destination in time, for all the 5 times.
population is the whole set and the sample is the subset of population.
umair
if the data set is drawn out of a larger set it is a sample and if it is itself the whole complete set it can be treated as population.
Bhavika
hello everyone
if I have the data set which contains measurements of each part during 10 years, may I say that it's the population or it's still a sample because it doesn't contain my measurements in the future?
thanks
Alexander
Pls I hv a problem on t test is there anyone who can help?
Peggy
What's your problem Peggy Abang
Dominic
Bhavika is right
Dominic
what is the problem peggy?
Bhavika
hi
Sandeep
Hello
adeagbo
hi
Bhavika
hii Bhavika
Dar
Hi eny population has a special definition. if that data set had all of characteristics of definition, that is population. otherwise that is a sample
Hoshyar
three coins are tossed. find the probability of no head
if the diameter will be greater than 3 cm then the bullet will not fit in the barrel of the gun so you are bothered for both the sides.
umair
in this test you are worried on both the ends
umair
lets say you are designing a bullet for thw gun od diameter equals 3cm.if the diameter of the bullet is less than 3 cm then you wont be able to shoot it
umair
In order to apply weddles rule for numerical integration what is minimum number of ordinates
We have rules of numerical integration like Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rules, Boole's rule and Weddle rule for n =1,2,3,4 and 6 but for n=5?
John
Someone should help me please, how can I calculate the Class Mark, Relative frequency and the cumulative frequency on a frequency table?