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References

Cauchon, Dennis, Paul Overberg. “Census data shows minorities now a majority of U.S. births.” USA Today, 2012. Available online at http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2012-05-17/minority-birthscensus/55029100/1 (accessed April 3, 2013).

Data from the United States Department of Commerce: United States Census Bureau. Available online at http://www.census.gov/ (accessed April 3, 2013).

“1990 Census.” United States Department of Commerce: United States Census Bureau. Available online at http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen1990.html (accessed April 3, 2013).

Data from San Jose Mercury News .

Data from Time Magazine ; survey by Yankelovich Partners, Inc.

Chapter review

The values that divide a rank-ordered set of data into 100 equal parts are called percentiles. Percentiles are used to compare and interpret data. For example, an observation at the 50 th percentile would be greater than 50 percent of the other obeservations in the set. Quartiles divide data into quarters. The first quartile ( Q 1 ) is the 25 th percentile,the second quartile ( Q 2 or median) is 50 th percentile, and the third quartile ( Q 3 ) is the the 75 th percentile. The interquartile range, or IQR , is the range of the middle 50 percent of the data values. The IQR is found by subtracting Q 1 from Q 3 , and can help determine outliers by using the following two expressions.

  • Q 3 + IQR (1.5)
  • Q 1 IQR (1.5)

Formula review

i = ( k 100 ) ( n + 1 )

where i = the ranking or position of a data value,

k = the kth percentile,

n = total number of data.

Expression for finding the percentile of a data value: ( x  +  0.5 y n ) (100)

where x = the number of values counting from the bottom of the data list up to but not including the data value for which you want to find the percentile,

y = the number of data values equal to the data value for which you want to find the percentile,

n = total number of data

Practice

Listed are 29 ages for Academy Award winning best actors in order from smallest to largest.

18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31; 33; 36; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76; 77

  1. Find the 40 th percentile.
  2. Find the 78 th percentile.
  1. The 40 th percentile is 37 years.
  2. The 78 th percentile is 70 years.

Listed are 32 ages for Academy Award winning best actors in order from smallest to largest.

18; 18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31; 31; 33; 36; 37; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76; 77

  1. Find the percentile of 37.
  2. Find the percentile of 72.

Jesse was ranked 37 th in his graduating class of 180 students. At what percentile is Jesse’s ranking?

Jesse graduated 37 th out of a class of 180 students. There are 180 – 37 = 143 students ranked below Jesse. There is one rank of 37.

x = 143 and y = 1. x + 0.5 y n (100) = 143 + 0.5 ( 1 ) 180 (100) = 79.72. Jesse’s rank of 37 puts him at the 80 th percentile.

  1. For runners in a race, a low time means a faster run. The winners in a race have the shortest running times. Is it more desirable to have a finish time with a high or a low percentile when running a race?
  2. The 20 th percentile of run times in a particular race is 5.2 minutes. Write a sentence interpreting the 20 th percentile in the context of the situation.
  3. A bicyclist in the 90 th percentile of a bicycle race completed the race in 1 hour and 12 minutes. Is he among the fastest or slowest cyclists in the race? Write a sentence interpreting the 90 th percentile in the context of the situation.
  1. For runners in a race, a higher speed means a faster run. Is it more desirable to have a speed with a high or a low percentile when running a race?
  2. The 40 th percentile of speeds in a particular race is 7.5 miles per hour. Write a sentence interpreting the 40 th percentile in the context of the situation.
  1. For runners in a race it is more desirable to have a high percentile for speed. A high percentile means a higher speed which is faster.
  2. 40% of runners ran at speeds of 7.5 miles per hour or less (slower). 60% of runners ran at speeds of 7.5 miles per hour or more (faster).

On an exam, would it be more desirable to earn a grade with a high or low percentile? Explain.

Mina is waiting in line at the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). Her wait time of 32 minutes is the 85 th percentile of wait times. Is that good or bad? Write a sentence interpreting the 85 th percentile in the context of this situation.

When waiting in line at the DMV, the 85 th percentile would be a long wait time compared to the other people waiting. 85% of people had shorter wait times than Mina. In this context, Mina would prefer a wait time corresponding to a lower percentile. 85% of people at the DMV waited 32 minutes or less. 15% of people at the DMV waited 32 minutes or longer.

In a survey collecting data about the salaries earned by recent college graduates, Li found that her salary was in the 78 th percentile. Should Li be pleased or upset by this result? Explain.

In a study collecting data about the repair costs of damage to automobiles in a certain type of crash tests, a certain model of car had $1,700 in damage and was in the 90 th percentile. Should the manufacturer and the consumer be pleased or upset by this result? Explain and write a sentence that interprets the 90 th percentile in the context of this problem.

The manufacturer and the consumer would be upset. This is a large repair cost for the damages, compared to the other cars in the sample. INTERPRETATION: 90% of the crash tested cars had damage repair costs of $1700 or less; only 10% had damage repair costs of $1700 or more.

The University of California has two criteria used to set admission standards for freshman to be admitted to a college in the UC system:

  1. Students' GPAs and scores on standardized tests (SATs and ACTs) are entered into a formula that calculates an "admissions index" score. The admissions index score is used to set eligibility standards intended to meet the goal of admitting the top 12% of high school students in the state. In this context, what percentile does the top 12% represent?
  2. Students whose GPAs are at or above the 96 th percentile of all students at their high school are eligible (called eligible in the local context), even if they are not in the top 12% of all students in the state. What percentage of students from each high school are "eligible in the local context"?

Suppose that you are buying a house. You and your realtor have determined that the most expensive house you can afford is the 34 th percentile. The 34 th percentile of housing prices is $240,000 in the town you want to move to. In this town, can you afford 34% of the houses or 66% of the houses?

You can afford 34% of houses. 66% of the houses are too expensive for your budget. INTERPRETATION: 34% of houses cost $240,000 or less. 66% of houses cost $240,000 or more.

Use [link] to calculate the following values:

First quartile = _______

Second quartile = median = 50 th percentile = _______

4

Third quartile = _______

Interquartile range ( IQR ) = _____ – _____ = _____

6 – 4 = 2

10 th percentile = _______

70 th percentile = _______

6

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Statistics i - math1020 - red river college - version 2015 revision a - draft 2015-10-24. OpenStax CNX. Oct 24, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11891/1.8
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