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Determine both Type I and Type II errors for the following scenario:

Assume a null hypothesis, H 0 , that states the percentage of adults with jobs is at least 88%.

Identify the Type I and Type II errors from these four statements.

  1. Not to reject the null hypothesis that the percentage of adults who have jobs is at least 88% when that percentage is actually less than 88%
  2. Not to reject the null hypothesis that the percentage of adults who have jobs is at least 88% when the percentage is actually at least 88%.
  3. Reject the null hypothesis that the percentage of adults who have jobs is at least 88% when the percentage is actually at least 88%.
  4. Reject the null hypothesis that the percentage of adults who have jobs is at least 88% when that percentage is actually less than 88%.

Type I error: c

Type I error: b

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Chapter review

In every hypothesis test, the outcomes are dependent on a correct interpretation of the data. Incorrect calculations or misunderstood summary statistics can yield errors that affect the results. A Type I error occurs when a true null hypothesis is rejected. A Type II error occurs when a false null hypothesis is not rejected.

The probabilities of these errors are denoted by the Greek letters α and β , for a Type I and a Type II error respectively. The power of the test, 1 – β , quantifies the likelihood that a test will yield the correct result of a true alternative hypothesis being accepted. A high power is desirable.

Formula review

α = probability of a Type I error = P (Type I error) = probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.

β = probability of a Type II error = P (Type II error) = probability of not rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false.

The mean price of mid-sized cars in a region is $32,000. A test is conducted to see if the claim is true. State the Type I and Type II errors in complete sentences.

Type I: The mean price of mid-sized cars is $32,000, but we conclude that it is not $32,000.

Type II: The mean price of mid-sized cars is not $32,000, but we conclude that it is $32,000.

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A sleeping bag is tested to withstand temperatures of –15 °F. You think the bag cannot stand temperatures that low. State the Type I and Type II errors in complete sentences.

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For Exercise 9.12 , what are α and β in words?

α = the probability that you think the bag cannot withstand -15 degrees F, when in fact it can

β = the probability that you think the bag can withstand -15 degrees F, when in fact it cannot

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In words, describe 1 – β For Exercise 9.12 .

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A group of doctors is deciding whether or not to perform an operation. Suppose the null hypothesis, H 0 , is: the surgical procedure will go well. State the Type I and Type II errors in complete sentences.

Type I: The procedure will go well, but the doctors think it will not.

Type II: The procedure will not go well, but the doctors think it will.

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A group of doctors is deciding whether or not to perform an operation. Suppose the null hypothesis, H 0 , is: the surgical procedure will go well. Which is the error with the greater consequence?

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The power of a test is 0.981. What is the probability of a Type II error?

0.019

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A group of divers is exploring an old sunken ship. Suppose the null hypothesis, H 0 , is: the sunken ship does not contain buried treasure. State the Type I and Type II errors in complete sentences.

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A microbiologist is testing a water sample for E-coli. Suppose the null hypothesis, H 0 , is: the sample does not contain E-coli. The probability that the sample does not contain E-coli, but the microbiologist thinks it does is 0.012. The probability that the sample does contain E-coli, but the microbiologist thinks it does not is 0.002. What is the power of this test?

0.998

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A microbiologist is testing a water sample for E-coli. Suppose the null hypothesis, H 0 , is: the sample contains E-coli. Which is the error with the greater consequence?

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Questions & Answers

what is standard deviation?
Jawed Reply
It is the measure of the variation of certain values from the Mean (Center) of a frequency distribution of sample values for a particular Variable.
Dominic
Yeah....the simplest one
IRFAN
what is the number of x
Godgift Reply
10
Elicia
Javed Arif
Jawed
how will you know if a group of data set is a sample or population
Kingsley Reply
population is the whole set and the sample is the subset of population.
umair
if the data set is drawn out of a larger set it is a sample and if it is itself the whole complete set it can be treated as population.
Bhavika
hello everyone if I have the data set which contains measurements of each part during 10 years, may I say that it's the population or it's still a sample because it doesn't contain my measurements in the future? thanks
Alexander
Pls I hv a problem on t test is there anyone who can help?
Peggy
What's your problem Peggy Abang
Dominic
Bhavika is right
Dominic
what is the problem peggy?
Bhavika
hi
Sandeep
Hello
adeagbo
hi
Bhavika
hii Bhavika
Dar
Hi eny population has a special definition. if that data set had all of characteristics of definition, that is population. otherwise that is a sample
Hoshyar
three coins are tossed. find the probability of no head
Kanwal Reply
three coins are tossed consecutively or what ?
umair
p(getting no head)=1/8
umair
or .125 is the probability of getting no head when 3 coins are tossed
umair
🤣🤣🤣
Simone
what is two tailed test
Umar Reply
if the diameter will be greater than 3 cm then the bullet will not fit in the barrel of the gun so you are bothered for both the sides.
umair
in this test you are worried on both the ends
umair
lets say you are designing a bullet for thw gun od diameter equals 3cm.if the diameter of the bullet is less than 3 cm then you wont be able to shoot it
umair
In order to apply weddles rule for numerical integration what is minimum number of ordinates
Anjali Reply
excuse me?
Gabriel
why?
Tade
didn't understand the question though.
Gabriel
which question? ?
Tade
We have rules of numerical integration like Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rules, Boole's rule and Weddle rule for n =1,2,3,4 and 6 but for n=5?
John
geometric mean of two numbers 4 and 16 is:
iphone Reply
10
umair
really
iphone
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is:
iphone
sorry 8 is the geometric mean of 4,16
umair
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is
iphone
can you please expalin the whole question ?
umair
mcq
iphone
h
iphone
can you please post the picture of that ?
umair
how
iphone
hello
John
10 now
John
how to find out the value
srijth Reply
can you be more specific ?
umair
yes
KrishnaReddy
what is the difference between inferential and descriptive statistics
Eze Reply
descriptive statistics gives you the result on the the data like you can calculate various things like variance,mean,median etc. however, inferential stats is involved in prediction of future trends using the previous stored data.
umair
if you need more help i am up for the help.
umair
Thanks a lot
Anjali
Inferential Statistics involves drawing conclusions on a population based on analysis of a sample. Descriptive statistics summarises or describes your current data as numerical calculations or graphs.
fred
my pleasure😊. Helping others offers me satisfaction 😊
umair
for poisson distribution mean............variance.
mehul Reply
both are equal to mu
Faizan
mean=variance
Faizan
what is a variable
Bonolo Reply
something that changes
Festus
why we only calculate 4 moment of mean? asked in papers.
Faizan Reply
why we only 4 moment of mean ? asked in BA exam
Faizan
Good evening, can you please help me by sharing regression and correlation analysis notes....thank you in advance
Refiloe Reply
Hello, can you please share the possible questions that are likely to be examined under the topic: regression and correlation analysis.
Refiloe
for normal distribution mean is 2 & variance is 4 find mu 4?
Faizan Reply
repeat quastion again
Yusuf
find mu 4. it can be wrong but want to prove how.
Faizan
for a normal distribution if mu 4 is 12 then find mu 3?
Faizan Reply
Question hi wrong ha
Tahir
ye BA mcqs me aya he teen he. 2dafa aya he
Faizan
if X is normally distributed. (n,b). then its mean deviation is?
Faizan
The answer is zero, because all odd ordered central moments of a normal distribution are Zero.
nikita
which question is zero
Faizan
sorry it is (5,16) in place of (n,b)
Faizan
I got. thanks. it is zero.
Faizan
a random variable having binomial distribution is?
Bokaho

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Source:  OpenStax, Introductory statistics. OpenStax CNX. May 06, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11562/1.18
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