# 9.2 Outcomes and the type i and type ii errors

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When you perform a hypothesis test, there are four possible outcomes depending on the actual truth (or falseness) of the null hypothesis ${H}_{o}$ and the decision to reject or not. The outcomes are summarized in the following table:

ACTION ${H}_{o}$ IS ACTUALLY ...
True False
Do not reject ${H}_{o}$ Correct Outcome Type II error
Reject ${H}_{o}$ Type I Error Correct Outcome

The four possible outcomes in the table are:

• The decision is to not reject ${H}_{o}$ when, in fact, ${H}_{o}$ is true (correct decision).
• The decision is to reject ${H}_{o}$ when, in fact, ${H}_{o}$ is true (incorrect decision known as a Type I error ).
• The decision is to not reject ${H}_{o}$ when, in fact, ${H}_{o}$ is false (incorrect decision known as a Type II error ).
• The decision is to reject ${H}_{o}$ when, in fact, ${H}_{o}$ is false ( correct decision whose probability is called the Power of the Test ).

Each of the errors occurs with a particular probability. The Greek letters $\alpha$ and $\beta$ represent the probabilities.

$\alpha$ = probability of a Type I error = P(Type I error) = probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.

$\beta$ = probability of a Type II error = P(Type II error) = probability of not rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false.

$\alpha$ and $\beta$ should be as small as possible because they are probabilities of errors. They are rarely 0.

The Power of the Test is $1-\beta$ . Ideally, we want a high power that is as close to 1 as possible. Increasing the sample size can increase the Power of the Test.

The following are examples of Type I and Type II errors.

Suppose the null hypothesis, ${H}_{o}$ , is: Frank's rock climbing equipment is safe.

Type I error : Frank thinks that his rock climbing equipment may not be safe when, in fact, it really is safe. Type II error : Frank thinks that his rock climbing equipment may be safe when, in fact, it is not safe.

$\alpha$ = probability that Frank thinks his rock climbing equipment may not be safe when, in fact, it really is safe. $\beta$ = probability that Frank thinks his rock climbing equipment may be safe when, in fact, it is not safe.

Notice that, in this case, the error with the greater consequence is the Type II error. (If Frank thinks his rock climbing equipment is safe, he will go ahead and use it.)

Suppose the null hypothesis, ${H}_{o}$ , is: The victim of an automobile accident is alive when he arrives at theemergency room of a hospital.

Type I error : The emergency crew thinks that the victim is dead when, in fact, the victim is alive. Type II error : The emergency crew does not know if the victim is alive when, in fact, thevictim is dead.

$\alpha$ = probability that the emergency crew thinks the victim is dead when, in fact, he is really alive = $\text{P(Type I error)}$ . $\beta$ = probability that the emergency crew does not know if the victim is alive when, in fact, the victim is dead = $\text{P(Type II error)}$ .

The error with the greater consequence is the Type I error. (If the emergency crew thinks the victim is dead, they will not treat him.)

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
1 It is estimated that 30% of all drivers have some kind of medical aid in South Africa. What is the probability that in a sample of 10 drivers: 3.1.1 Exactly 4 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.2 At least 2 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.3 More than 9 will have a medical aid.