<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

A confidence interval for a population mean with a known standard deviation is based on the fact that the sample means follow an approximately normal distribution. Suppose that our sample has a mean of x ¯  = 10 and we have constructed the 90% confidence interval (5, 15) where EBM = 5.

Calculating the confidence interval

To construct a confidence interval for a single unknown population mean μ , where the population standard deviation is known , we need x ¯ as an estimate for μ and we need the margin of error. Here, the margin of error ( EBM ) is called the error bound for a population mean (abbreviated EBM ). The sample mean x ¯ is the point estimate of the unknown population mean μ .

The confidence interval estimate will have the form:

(point estimate - error bound, point estimate + error bound) or, in symbols,( x ¯ E B M , x ¯ + E B M )

The margin of error ( EBM ) depends on the confidence level (abbreviated CL ). The confidence level is often considered the probability that the calculated confidence interval estimate will contain the true population parameter. However, it is more accurate to state that the confidence level is the percent of confidence intervals that contain the true population parameter when repeated samples are taken. Most often, it is the choice of the person constructing the confidence interval to choose a confidence level of 90% or higher because that person wants to be reasonably certain of his or her conclusions.

There is another probability called alpha ( α ). α is related to the confidence level, CL . α is the probability that the interval does not contain the unknown population parameter.
Mathematically, α + CL = 1.

  • Suppose we have collected data from a sample. We know the sample mean but we do not know the mean for the entire population.
  • The sample mean is seven, and the error bound for the mean is 2.5.

x ¯ = 7 and EBM = 2.5

The confidence interval is (7 – 2.5, 7 + 2.5), and calculating the values gives (4.5, 9.5).

If the confidence level ( CL ) is 95%, then we say that, "We estimate with 95% confidence that the true value of the population mean is between 4.5 and 9.5."

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Try it

Suppose we have data from a sample. The sample mean is 15, and the error bound for the mean is 3.2.

What is the confidence interval estimate for the population mean?

(11.8, 18.2)

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

A confidence interval for a population mean with a known standard deviation is based on the fact that the sample means follow an approximately normal distribution. Suppose that our sample has a mean of x ¯ = 10, and we have constructed the 90% confidence interval (5, 15) where EBM = 5.

To get a 90% confidence interval, we must include the central 90% of the probability of the normal distribution. If we include the central 90%, we leave out a total of α = 10% in both tails, or 5% in each tail, of the normal distribution.

This is a normal distribution curve. The peak of the curve coincides with the point 10 on the horizontal axis. The points 5 and 15 are labeled on the axis. Vertical lines are drawn from these points to the curve, and the region between the lines is shaded. The shaded region has area equal to 0.90.

To capture the central 90%, we must go out 1.645 "standard deviations" on either side of the calculated sample mean. The value 1.645 is the z -score from a standard normal probability distribution that puts an area of 0.90 in the center, an area of 0.05 in the far left tail, and an area of 0.05 in the far right tail.

Questions & Answers

what is standard deviation?
Jawed Reply
It is the measure of the variation of certain values from the Mean (Center) of a frequency distribution of sample values for a particular Variable.
Dominic
Yeah....the simplest one
IRFAN
what is the number of x
Godgift Reply
10
Elicia
Javed Arif
Jawed
how will you know if a group of data set is a sample or population
Kingsley Reply
population is the whole set and the sample is the subset of population.
umair
if the data set is drawn out of a larger set it is a sample and if it is itself the whole complete set it can be treated as population.
Bhavika
hello everyone if I have the data set which contains measurements of each part during 10 years, may I say that it's the population or it's still a sample because it doesn't contain my measurements in the future? thanks
Alexander
Pls I hv a problem on t test is there anyone who can help?
Peggy
What's your problem Peggy Abang
Dominic
Bhavika is right
Dominic
what is the problem peggy?
Bhavika
hi
Sandeep
Hello
adeagbo
hi
Bhavika
hii Bhavika
Dar
Hi eny population has a special definition. if that data set had all of characteristics of definition, that is population. otherwise that is a sample
Hoshyar
three coins are tossed. find the probability of no head
Kanwal Reply
three coins are tossed consecutively or what ?
umair
p(getting no head)=1/8
umair
or .125 is the probability of getting no head when 3 coins are tossed
umair
🤣🤣🤣
Simone
what is two tailed test
Umar Reply
if the diameter will be greater than 3 cm then the bullet will not fit in the barrel of the gun so you are bothered for both the sides.
umair
in this test you are worried on both the ends
umair
lets say you are designing a bullet for thw gun od diameter equals 3cm.if the diameter of the bullet is less than 3 cm then you wont be able to shoot it
umair
In order to apply weddles rule for numerical integration what is minimum number of ordinates
Anjali Reply
excuse me?
Gabriel
why?
Tade
didn't understand the question though.
Gabriel
which question? ?
Tade
We have rules of numerical integration like Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rules, Boole's rule and Weddle rule for n =1,2,3,4 and 6 but for n=5?
John
geometric mean of two numbers 4 and 16 is:
iphone Reply
10
umair
really
iphone
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is:
iphone
sorry 8 is the geometric mean of 4,16
umair
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is
iphone
can you please expalin the whole question ?
umair
mcq
iphone
h
iphone
can you please post the picture of that ?
umair
how
iphone
hello
John
10 now
John
how to find out the value
srijth Reply
can you be more specific ?
umair
yes
KrishnaReddy
what is the difference between inferential and descriptive statistics
Eze Reply
descriptive statistics gives you the result on the the data like you can calculate various things like variance,mean,median etc. however, inferential stats is involved in prediction of future trends using the previous stored data.
umair
if you need more help i am up for the help.
umair
Thanks a lot
Anjali
Inferential Statistics involves drawing conclusions on a population based on analysis of a sample. Descriptive statistics summarises or describes your current data as numerical calculations or graphs.
fred
my pleasure😊. Helping others offers me satisfaction 😊
umair
for poisson distribution mean............variance.
mehul Reply
both are equal to mu
Faizan
mean=variance
Faizan
what is a variable
Bonolo Reply
something that changes
Festus
why we only calculate 4 moment of mean? asked in papers.
Faizan Reply
why we only 4 moment of mean ? asked in BA exam
Faizan
Good evening, can you please help me by sharing regression and correlation analysis notes....thank you in advance
Refiloe Reply
Hello, can you please share the possible questions that are likely to be examined under the topic: regression and correlation analysis.
Refiloe
for normal distribution mean is 2 & variance is 4 find mu 4?
Faizan Reply
repeat quastion again
Yusuf
find mu 4. it can be wrong but want to prove how.
Faizan
for a normal distribution if mu 4 is 12 then find mu 3?
Faizan Reply
Question hi wrong ha
Tahir
ye BA mcqs me aya he teen he. 2dafa aya he
Faizan
if X is normally distributed. (n,b). then its mean deviation is?
Faizan
The answer is zero, because all odd ordered central moments of a normal distribution are Zero.
nikita
which question is zero
Faizan
sorry it is (5,16) in place of (n,b)
Faizan
I got. thanks. it is zero.
Faizan
a random variable having binomial distribution is?
Bokaho

Get the best Introductory statistics course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Introductory statistics. OpenStax CNX. May 06, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11562/1.18
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Introductory statistics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask