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The following table is a portion of a data set from www.worldbank.org. Use the table to construct a time series graph for CO 2 emissions for the United States.

CO2 Emissions
Ukraine United Kingdom United States
2003 352,259 540,640 5,681,664
2004 343,121 540,409 5,790,761
2005 339,029 541,990 5,826,394
2006 327,797 542,045 5,737,615
2007 328,357 528,631 5,828,697
2008 323,657 522,247 5,656,839
2009 272,176 474,579 5,299,563
This is a times series graph that matches the supplied data. The x-axis shows years from 2003 to 2012, and the y-axis shows the annual CPI.
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Uses of a time series graph

Time series graphs are important tools in various applications of statistics. When recording values of the same variable over an extended period of time, sometimes it is difficult to discern any trend or pattern. However, once the same data points are displayed graphically, some features jump out. Time series graphs make trends easy to spot.


Data on annual homicides in Detroit, 1961–73, from Gunst&Mason’s book ‘Regression Analysis and its Application’, Marcel Dekker

“Timeline: Guide to the U.S. Presidents: Information on every president’s birthplace, political party, term of office, and more.” Scholastic, 2013. Available online at http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/timeline-guide-us-presidents (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Presidents.” Fact Monster. Pearson Education, 2007. Available online at http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0194030.html (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Food Security Statistics.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online at http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/en/ (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Consumer Price Index.” United States Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available online at http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet (accessed April 3, 2013).

“CO2 emissions (kt).” The World Bank, 2013. Available online at http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Births Time Series Data.” General Register Office For Scotland, 2013. Available online at http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/theme/vital-events/births/time-series.html (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Demographics: Children under the age of 5 years underweight.” Indexmundi. Available online at http://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?t=50&v=2224&aml=en (accessed April 3, 2013).

Gunst, Richard, Robert Mason. Regression Analysis and Its Application: A Data-Oriented Approach . CRC Press: 1980.

“Overweight and Obesity: Adult Obesity Facts.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html (accessed September 13, 2013).

Chapter review

A histogram is a graphic version of a frequency distribution. The graph consists of bars of equal width drawn adjacent to each other. The horizontal scale represents classes of quantitative data values and the vertical scale represents frequencies. The heights of the bars correspond to frequency values. Histograms are typically used for large, continuous, quantitative data sets. A frequency polygon can also be used when graphing large data sets with data points that repeat. The data usually goes on y -axis with the frequency being graphed on the x -axis. Time series graphs can be helpful when looking at large amounts of data for one variable over a period of time.

Questions & Answers

IMAGESNEWSVIDEOS A Dictionary of Computing. measures of location Quantities that represent the average or typical value of a random variable (compare measures of variation). They are either properties of a probability distribution or computed statistics of a sample. Three important measures are the mean, median, and mode.
Ahmed Reply
define the measures of location
Kaynaat Reply
IMAGESNEWSVIDEOS A Dictionary of Computing. measures of location Quantities that represent the average or typical value of a random variable (compare measures of variation). They are either properties of a probability distribution or computed statistics of a sample. Three important measures are th
what is confidence interval estimate and its formula in getting it
Jhezarie Reply
discuss the roles of vital and health statistic in the planning of health service of the community
given that the probability of
can man city win Liverpool ?
Emmanuel Reply
There are two coins on a table. When both are flipped, one coin land on heads eith probability 0.5 while the other lands on head with probability 0.6. A coin is randomly selected from the table and flipped. (a) what is probability it lands on heads? (b) given that it lands on tail, what is the Condi
Nusrat Reply
what is gradient descent?
Saurav Reply
It should be a Machine learning terms。
it is a term used in linear regression
what are the differences between standard deviation and variancs?
what is statistics
Emmanuel Reply
statistics is the collection and interpretation of data
the science of summarization and description of numerical facts
Is the estimation of probability
mr. zaini..can u tell me more clearly how to calculated pair t test
do you have MG Akarwal Statistics' book Zaini?
Haai how r u?
maybe .... mathematics is the science of simplification and statistics is the interpretation of such values and its implications.
can we discuss about pair test
what is outlier?
Usama Reply
outlier is an observation point that is distant from other observations.
what is its effect on mode?
Outlier  have little effect on the mode of a given set of data.
How can you identify a possible outlier(s) in a data set.
The best visualisation method to identify the outlier is box and wisker method or boxplot diagram. The points which are located outside the max edge of wisker(both side) are considered as outlier.
@Daniel Adunkwah - Usually you can identify an outlier visually. They lie outside the observed pattern of the other data points, thus they're called outliers.
what is completeness?
I am new to this. I am trying to learn.
I am also new Dom, welcome!
please my friend i want same general points about statistics. say same thing
outliers do not have effect on mode
also new
I don't get the example
Hadekunle Reply
ways of collecting data at least 10 and explain
Ridwan Reply
Example of discrete variable
Bada Reply
sales made monthly.
I am new here, can I get someone to guide up?
dies outcome is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 nothing come outside of it. it is an example of discrete variable
continue variable is any value value between 0 to 1 it could be 4digit values eg 0.1, 0.21, 0.13, 0.623, 0.32
How to answer quantitative data
Alhassan Reply
what's up here ... am new here
sorry question a bit unclear...do you mean how do you analyze quantitative data? If yes, it depends on the specific question(s) you set in the beginning as well as on the data you collected. So the method of data analysis will be dependent on the data collecter and questions asked.
how to solve for degree of freedom
Quantitative data is the data in numeric form. For eg: Income of persons asked is 10,000. This data is quantitative data on the other hand data collected for either make or female is qualitative data.
Degree of freedom is the unconditionality. For example if you have total number of observations n, and you have to calculate variance, obviously you will need mean for that. Here mean is a condition, without which you cannot calculate variance. Therefore degree of freedom for variance will be n-1.
data that is best presented in categories like haircolor, food taste (good, bad, fair, terrible) constitutes qualitative data
vegetation types (grasslands, forests etc) qualitative data
I don't understand how you solved it can you teach me
Caleb Reply
solve what?
What is the end points of a confidence interval called?
lower and upper endpoints

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Source:  OpenStax, Introductory statistics. OpenStax CNX. May 06, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11562/1.18
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