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This cost distribution holds where the costs of specification, design, implementation and integration are measured separately. Notice that system integration and testing is the most expensive development activity.

The evolution costs for generic software products are particularly hard to estimate. In many cases, there is little formal evolution of a product. Once a version of the product has been released, work starts on the next release and, for marketing reasons, this is likely to be presented as a new (but compatible) product rather than a modified version of a product which the user has already bought. Therefore, the evolution costs are not assessed separately as they are in customised software but are simply the development costs for the next version of the system.

What are software engineering methods?

A software engineering method is a structured approach to software development whose aim is to facilitate the production of high-quality software in a cost-effective way. Methods such as Structured Analysis (DeMarco, 1978) and JSD (Jackson, 1983) were first developed in the 1970s. These methods attempted to identify the basic functional components of a system and function-oriented methods are still widely used. In the 1980s and 1990s, these function-oriented methods were supplemented by object-oriented methods such as those proposed by Booch (Booch, 1994) and Rumbaugh (Rumbaugh, Blaha et al., 1991). These different approaches have now been integrated into a single unified approach built around the Unified Modeling Language (UML) (Fowler and Scott, 1997) (Booch, Rumbaugh et al., 1999; Rumbaugh, Jacobson et al., 1999; Rumbaugh, Jacobson et al., 1999).

All methods are based on the idea of developing models of a system which may be represented graphically and using these models as a system specification or design.

There is no ideal method and different methods have different areas where they are applicable. For example, object-oriented methods are often appropriate for interactive systems but not for systems with stringent real-time requirements.

What is case?

The acronym CASE stands for Computer-Aided Software Engineering. It covers a wide range of different types of program which are used to support software process activities such as requirements analysis, system modelling, debugging and testing.

All methods now come with associated CASE technology such as editors for the notations used in the method, analysis modules which check the system model according to the method rules and report generators to help create system documentation. The CASE tools may also include a code generator which automatically generates source code from the system model and some process guidance which gives advice to the software engineer on what to do next.

This type of CASE tool, aimed at supporting analysis and design, is sometimes called an upper-CASE tool because it supports early phases of the software process. By contrast, CASE tools which are designed to support implementation and testing such as debuggers, program analysis systems, test case generators and program editors are sometimes called lower-CASE tools.

Questions & Answers

Text editor project in c++
Ayesha Reply
hi daddy
Sreenu
hello sir
Ranjith
are unmanned flying machines that are built and equipped with various kinds of software systems that allow them to see, hear, and act. Discuss some of the societal challenges of building such kinds of systems.
johni Reply
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful. Write a short report for your manager expl
johni
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful.
johni
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful.
johni
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful. Write a short report for your manager expl
johni
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful.
johni
what is cocomo ?
Surabhi Reply
?
StReeT
give me coding of these projects
Aman Reply
feasibility study&fact gathering techniques
Nachi Reply
write about software engineering
Mandala Reply
8.10.0.
BARBU
define iterative model. example of iterative model. advantages and disadvantages of iterative model. when to use iterative model
Okello Reply
What is DFD in Software engineering
Hamid
i try out in netbeans this code:public class Profile { private Profile(int w) { // line 1 System.out.println(w); } public final Profile() { // line 5 System.out.println(10); } public static void main(String args[]) { Profile obj = new Profile(50); } } It is the question 5, and the answer is 50
Jacqueline Reply
how to join conversation
Bablu
i need help....Discuss the factors that influence the choice of the software development methodology to use when implementing software projects?(20)
tatenda Reply
The success rate of software development projects can be increased by using a methodology that is adequate for the specific characteristics of those projects.  then the focus on RAD,XP,RUP.
Hemant
hemant hie...it is a presentation i am working on...can you help me wth the introduction....please a powerful one hahahahha
tatenda
yes
Hemant
Define and show all Dipthongs and vowels used in english phonetics
Okendro Reply
what is the software engineering
Axmed Reply
please
Jennifer
hhahhaha
martin
software engineering is a organized process of activities for development a use full software . it may consist of : 1:spcecification 2:design 3: implementation 4: evolution:
hamayun
Please how can I create an application?
Eric Reply
please how can I create an application
Nchor
How do we create a software
Florence Reply
give a more direct question
Louis Reply
what is semantics?
amjad
what r the computer codes
Kawuba Reply
machine code, source code , object code, and byte code etc
Hemant

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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