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Data flow-based criteria

In data-flow-based testing, the control flowgraph is annotated with information about how the program variables are defined, used, and killed (undefined). The strongest criterion, all definition-use paths, requires that, for each variable, every control flow path segment from a definition of that variable to a use of that definition is executed. In order to reduce the number of paths required, weaker strategies such as all-definitions and all-uses are employed.

Reference models for code-based testing

Although not a technique in itself, the control structure of a program is graphically represented using a flowgraph in code-based testing techniques. A flowgraph is a directed graph the nodes and arcs of which correspond to program elements. For instance, nodes may represent statements or uninterrupted sequences of statements, and arcs the transfer of control between nodes.

Fault-based techniques

With different degrees of formalization, fault-based testing techniques devise test cases specifically aimed at revealing categories of likely or predefined faults.

Error guessing

In error guessing, test cases are specifically designed by software engineers trying to figure out the most plausible faults in a given program. A good source of information is the history of faults discovered in earlier projects, as well as the software engineer’s expertise.

Mutation testing

A mutant is a slightly modified version of the program under test, differing from it by a small, syntactic change. Every test case exercises both the original and all generated mutants: if a test case is successful in identifying the difference between the program and a mutant, the latter is said to be “killed.” Originally conceived as a technique to evaluate a test set, mutation testing is also a testing criterion in itself: either tests are randomly generated until enough mutants have been killed, or tests are specifically designed to kill surviving mutants. In the latter case, mutation testing can also be categorized as a code-based technique. The underlying assumption of mutation testing, the coupling effect, is that by looking for simple syntactic faults, more complex but real faults will be found. For the technique to be effective, a large number of mutants must be automatically derived in a systematic way.

Usage-based techniques

Operational profile

In testing for reliability evaluation, the test environment must reproduce the operational environment of the software as closely as possible. The idea is to infer, from the observed test results, the future reliability of the software when in actual use. To do this, inputs are assigned a probability distribution, or profile, according to their occurrence in actual operation.

Software reliability engineered testing

Software Reliability Engineered Testing (SRET) is a testing method encompassing the whole development process, whereby testing is “designed and guided by reliability objectives and expected relative usage and criticality of different functions in the field.”

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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