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Architectural structures and viewpoints

Different high-level facets of a software design can and should be described and documented. These facets are often called views: “A view represents a partial aspect of a software architecture that shows specific properties of a software system”. These distinct views pertain to distinct issues associated with software design - for example, the logical view (satisfying the functional requirements) vs. the process view (concurrency issues) vs. the physical view (distribution issues) vs. the development view (how the design is broken down into implementation units). Other authors use different terminologies, like behavioral vs. functional vs. structural vs. data modeling views. In summary, a software design is a multi-faceted artifact produced by the design process and generally composed of relatively independent and orthogonal views.

An architectural style is “a set of constraints on an architecture [that] defines a set or family of architectures that satisfies them”. An architectural style can thus be seen as a meta-model which can provide software’s high-level organization (its macroarchitecture).

  • General structure (for example, layers, pipes, and filters, blackboard)
  • Distributed systems (for example, client-server, threetiers, broker)
  • Interactive systems (for example, Model-View-Controller, Presentation-Abstraction-Control)
  • Adaptable systems (for example, micro-kernel, reflection)
  • Others (for example, batch, interpreters, process control, rule-based).

Design patterns

Succinctly described, a pattern is “a common solution to a common problem in a given context.” While architectural styles can be viewed as patterns describing the high-level organization of software (their macroarchitecture), other design patterns can be used to describe details at a lower, more local level (their microarchitecture).

  • Creational patterns (example: builder, factory, prototype, and singleton)
  • Structural patterns (example: adapter, bridge, composite, decorator, façade, flyweight, and proxy)
  • Behavioral patterns (example: command, interpreter, iterator, mediator, memento, observer, state, strategy, template, visitor)

Families of programs and frameworks

One possible approach to allow the reuse of software designs and components is to design families of software, also known as software product lines. This can be done by identifying the commonalities among members of such families and by using reusable and customizable components to account for the variability among family members.

In OO programming, a key related notion is that of the framework: a partially complete software subsystem that can be extended by appropriately instantiating specific plug-ins (also known as hot spots).

Software design quality analysis and evaluation

This section includes a number of quality and evaluation topics that are specifically related to software design.

Quality attributes

Various attributes are generally considered important for obtaining a software design of good quality - various “ilities” (maintainability, portability, testability, traceability), various “nesses” (correctness, robustness), including “fitness of purpose”.

Questions & Answers

write about software engineering
Mandala Reply
define iterative model. example of iterative model. advantages and disadvantages of iterative model. when to use iterative model
Okello Reply
i try out in netbeans this code:public class Profile { private Profile(int w) { // line 1 System.out.println(w); } public final Profile() { // line 5 System.out.println(10); } public static void main(String args[]) { Profile obj = new Profile(50); } } It is the question 5, and the answer is 50
Jacqueline Reply
i need help....Discuss the factors that influence the choice of the software development methodology to use when implementing software projects?(20)
tatenda Reply
The success rate of software development projects can be increased by using a methodology that is adequate for the specific characteristics of those projects.  then the focus on RAD,XP,RUP.
Hemant
hemant hie...it is a presentation i am working on...can you help me wth the introduction....please a powerful one hahahahha
tatenda
yes
Hemant
Define and show all Dipthongs and vowels used in english phonetics
Okendro Reply
what is the software engineering
Axmed Reply
Please how can I create an application?
Eric Reply
please how can I create an application
Nchor
How do we create a software
Florence Reply
give a more direct question
Louis Reply
what is semantics?
amjad
what r the computer codes
Kawuba Reply
machine code, source code , object code, and byte code etc
Hemant
what is software
Manobendra Reply
a collection of program executable by code is called software
Hemant
how can I create a software
Mary Reply
use in any model . then after you create any software
Hemant
what is capability maturity model integration
Muctarr
what is maturity level
Muctarr
maturity level is organization's process improvement achievement in multiple process areas
Hemant
how to trubulshoot is configuration ?
priya Reply
hello
Julius
hello
abeer
hello
Sahil
hello
Natnael
Hello
Eric
Guy's put your answer only
Natnael
click start then click run then type msconfig then ok
Natnael
explain coco model
dawood Reply
it model based on LOC. i.e; number of lines of code.
Hemant
What is a client engineer
buthayna Reply
A Customer Engineer (CE) is a worker whose primary job scope is to provide a service to customers who have signed a contract with the company.
Fokuo
Thank you
buthayna
Hi
ahly
hello,how are you doing?
Fokuo
nothing
Hemant
it's a pleasure meeting you.
Fokuo
tq
Hemant
Nice to meet you too
Hemant
good night
Hemant
hi in here
Asongafac
hello
Eric
please I want to more about this group
Asongafac
pravinkumar
pravin
hello
pravin
I want to create software
Michael
name suraj kumae
Suraj

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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