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Formal modeling using notations based on discrete mathematics, and which are traceable to logical reasoning, have made an impact in some specialized domains. These may be imposed by customers or standards or may offer compelling advantages to the analysis of certain critical functions or components.

Two standards provide notations which may be useful in performing conceptual modeling–IEEE Std 1320.1, IDEF0 for functional modeling; and IEEE Std 1320.2, IDEF1X97 (IDEFObject) for information modeling.

Architectural design and requirements allocation

At some point, the architecture of the solution must be derived. Architectural design is the point at which the requirements process overlaps with software or systems design and illustrates how impossible it is to cleanly decouple the two tasks. This topic is closely related to the Software Structure and Architecture subarea in the Software Design KA. In many cases, the software engineer acts as software architect because the process of analyzing and elaborating the requirements demands that the components that will be responsible for satisfying the requirements be identified. This is requirements allocation–the assignment, to components, of the responsibility for satisfying requirements.

Allocation is important to permit detailed analysis of requirements. Hence, for example, once a set of requirements has been allocated to a component, the individual requirements can be further analyzed to discover further requirements on how the component needs to interact with other components in order to satisfy the allocated requirements. In large projects, allocation stimulates a new round of analysis for each subsystem.

Architectural design is closely identified with conceptual modeling. The mapping from real-world domain entities to software components is not always obvious, so architectural design is identified as a separate topic. The requirements of notations and methods are broadly the same for both conceptual modeling and architectural design.

Requirements negotiation

Another term commonly used for this sub-topic is “conflict resolution.” This concerns resolving problems with requirements where conflicts occur between two stakeholders requiring mutually incompatible features, between requirements and resources, or between functional and non-functional requirements. In most cases, it is unwise for the software engineer to make a unilateral decision, and so it becomes necessary to consult with the stakeholder(s) to reach a consensus on an appropriate trade-off. It is often important for contractual reasons that such decisions be traceable back to the customer. We have classified this as a software requirements analysis topic because problems emerge as the result of analysis. However, a strong case can also be made for considering it a requirements validation topic.

Requirements specification

For most engineering professions, the term “specification” refers to the assignment of numerical values or limits to a product’s design goals. Typical physical systems have a relatively small number of such values. Typical software has a large number of requirements, and the emphasis is shared between performing the numerical quantification and managing the complexity of interaction among the large number of requirements. So, in software engineering jargon, “software requirements specification” typically refers to the production of a document, or its electronic equivalent, which can be systematically reviewed, evaluated, and approved.

Questions & Answers

Which of these are standards for assessing software processes
own Reply
team a found 342 errors during the software engineering process prior to release. team b found 184 errors. what additional measures would have to be made for projects a and b to determine which of the teams eliminated errors more efficiently? what metrics would you propose to help in making the determination? what historical data might be useful?
Kaviya Reply
it's depend upon software testing and debugging
OMKAR
what is coding
Waswa Reply
programming languages is a coding it is also used software development, designing, modeling, etc..
OMKAR
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Ichaba
AND here lot of course
OMKAR
How to calculate the basic salary of a payroll in Java coding?
Adjei Reply
ত্তচুরভহব
Parvez
hello
Bahadur
Quids on software engineering
Enongene Reply
software testing practice
Prerana
definition of software
Baba Reply
define system ,concepts of system and types of system?
Gurmeet Reply
iom
ADNAN
hello
arsh
hari Paulus hai
Hari
System is the way of Execution or a set of principles to do something or any task is called System.
Ayesha
There are many infinite forms and Types of System in different fields as well.
Ayesha
TELL ME ABOUT MAINFRAME?
OMKAR
hi
Md
System is the way of Execution or a set of principles to do something or any task is called System.
Sazed
is very important software engineer or not.
Riyanshu Reply
very important
arsh
2d
Dv
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Md
what is software engineering
Ravindra Reply
Software engineering is a detailed study of engineering to the design, development and maintenance of software
arsh
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Akash Reply
it depend on organization's and quality
josephat
I think average salary 80000us dollars per year
arsh
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BANDARU Reply
what is the nature of saftware
BANDARU Reply
what is nature of sotfware
BANDARU
hi
khushboo
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khushboo
code debug
khushboo
in eclipse java
khushboo
@janak can u suggest
khushboo
what is the salary of software engineer
Akash
per month
Akash
please tell me what is the salary of software engineer per monthe
Akash
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OMKAR
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Rakesh Reply
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HUAWEI.ABBULLAG.45720891
Abdula Reply
how to build apps
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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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