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Control process

The outcomes of the process monitoring activities provide the basis on which action decisions are taken. Where appropriate, and where the impact and associated risks are modeled and managed, changes can be made to the project. This may take the form of corrective action (for example, retesting certain components), it may involve the incorporation of contingencies so that similar occurrences are avoided (for example, the decision to use prototyping to assist in software requirements validation), and/or it may entail the revision of the various plans and other project documents (for example, requirements specification) to accommodate the unexpected outcomes and their implications.


At specified and agreed periods, adherence to the plans is reported, both within the organization (for example to the project portfolio steering committee) and to external stakeholders (for example, clients, users). Reports of this nature should focus on overall adherence as opposed to the detailed reporting required frequently within the project team.

Review and evaluation

At critical points in the project, overall progress towards achievement of the stated objectives and satisfaction of stakeholder requirements are evaluated. Similarly, assessments of the effectiveness of the overall process to date, the personnel involved, and the tools and methods employed are also undertaken at particular milestones.

Determining satisfaction of requirements

Since attaining stakeholder (user and customer) satisfaction is one of our principal aims, it is important that progress towards this aim be formally and periodically assessed. This occurs on achievement of major project milestones (for example, confirmation of software design architecture, software integration technical review). Variances from expectations are identified and appropriate action is taken.

Reviewing and evaluating performance

Periodic performance reviews for project personnel provide insights as to the likelihood of adherence to plans as well as possible areas of difficulty (for example, team member conflicts). The various methods, tools, and techniques employed are evaluated for their effectiveness and appropriateness, and the process itself is systematically and periodically assessed for its relevance, utility, and efficacy in the project context. Where appropriate, changes are made and managed.


The project reaches closure when all the plans and embodied processes have been enacted and completed. At this stage, the criteria for project success are revisited. Once closure is established, archival, post mortem, and process improvement activities are performed.

Determining closure

The tasks as specified in the plans are complete, and satisfactory achievement of completion criteria is confirmed. All planned products have been delivered with acceptable characteristics. Requirements are checked off and confirmed as satisfied, and the objectives of the project have been achieved. These processes generally involve all stakeholders and result in the documentation of client acceptance and any remaining known problem reports.

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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