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Initiation and scope definition

The focus of this set of activities is on the effective determination of software requirements via various elicitation methods and the assessment of the project’s feasibility from a variety of standpoints. Once feasibility has been established, the remaining task within this process is the specification of requirements validation and change procedures.

Determination and negotiation of requirements

Software requirement methods for requirements elicitation (for example, observation), analysis (for example, data modeling, use-case modeling), specification, and validation (for example, prototyping) must be selected and applied, taking into account the various stakeholder perspectives. This leads to the determination of project scope, objectives, and constraints. This is always an important activity, as it sets the visible boundaries for the set of tasks being undertaken, and is particularly so where the novelty of the undertaking is high.

Feasibility analysis

Software engineers must be assured that adequate capability and resources are available in the form of people, expertise, facilities, infrastructure, and support (either internally or externally) to ensure that the project can be successfully completed in a timely and cost-effective manner (using, for example, a requirement-capability matrix). This often requires some “ballpark” estimation of effort and cost based on appropriate methods (for example, expert-informed analogy techniques).

Process for the review and revision of requirements

Given the inevitability of change, it is vital that agreement among stakeholders is reached at this early point as to the means by which scope and requirements are to be reviewed and revised (for example, via agreed change management procedures). This clearly implies that scope and requirements will not be “set in stone” but can and should be revisited at predetermined points as the process unfolds (for example, at design reviews, management reviews). If changes are accepted, then some form of traceability analysis and risk analysis should be used to ascertain the impact of those changes. A managed-change approach should also be useful when it comes time to review the outcome of the project, as the scope and requirements should form the basis for the evaluation of success.

Software project planning

The iterative planning process is informed by the scope and requirements and by the establishment of feasibility. At this point, software life cycle processes are evaluated and the most appropriate (given the nature of the project, its degree of novelty, its functional and technical complexity, its quality requirements, and so on) is selected. Where relevant, the project itself is then planned in the form of a hierarchical decomposition of tasks, the associated deliverables of each task are specified and characterized in terms of quality and other attributes in line with stated requirements, and detailed effort, schedule, and cost estimation is undertaken. Resources are then allocated to tasks so as to optimize personnel productivity (at individual, team, and organizational levels), equipment and materials utilization, and adherence to schedule. Detailed risk management is undertaken and the “risk profile” of the project is discussed among, and accepted by, all relevant stakeholders. Comprehensive software quality management processes are determined as part of the planning process in the form of procedures and responsibilities for software quality assurance, verification and validation, reviews, and audits. As an iterative process, it is vital that the processes and responsibilities for ongoing plan management, review, and revision are also clearly stated and agreed.

Questions & Answers

Text editor project in c++
Ayesha Reply
hi daddy
Sreenu
hello sir
Ranjith
are unmanned flying machines that are built and equipped with various kinds of software systems that allow them to see, hear, and act. Discuss some of the societal challenges of building such kinds of systems.
johni Reply
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful. Write a short report for your manager expl
johni
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful.
johni
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful.
johni
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful. Write a short report for your manager expl
johni
You have developed a prototype of a software system and your manager is very impressed by it. She proposes that it should be put into use as a production sys tem, with new features added as required. This avoids the expense of system dev immediately useful.
johni
what is cocomo ?
Surabhi Reply
?
StReeT
give me coding of these projects
Aman Reply
feasibility study&fact gathering techniques
Nachi Reply
write about software engineering
Mandala Reply
8.10.0.
BARBU
define iterative model. example of iterative model. advantages and disadvantages of iterative model. when to use iterative model
Okello Reply
What is DFD in Software engineering
Hamid
i try out in netbeans this code:public class Profile { private Profile(int w) { // line 1 System.out.println(w); } public final Profile() { // line 5 System.out.println(10); } public static void main(String args[]) { Profile obj = new Profile(50); } } It is the question 5, and the answer is 50
Jacqueline Reply
how to join conversation
Bablu
i need help....Discuss the factors that influence the choice of the software development methodology to use when implementing software projects?(20)
tatenda Reply
The success rate of software development projects can be increased by using a methodology that is adequate for the specific characteristics of those projects.  then the focus on RAD,XP,RUP.
Hemant
hemant hie...it is a presentation i am working on...can you help me wth the introduction....please a powerful one hahahahha
tatenda
yes
Hemant
Define and show all Dipthongs and vowels used in english phonetics
Okendro Reply
what is the software engineering
Axmed Reply
please
Jennifer
hhahhaha
martin
software engineering is a organized process of activities for development a use full software . it may consist of : 1:spcecification 2:design 3: implementation 4: evolution:
hamayun
Please how can I create an application?
Eric Reply
please how can I create an application
Nchor
How do we create a software
Florence Reply
give a more direct question
Louis Reply
what is semantics?
amjad
what r the computer codes
Kawuba Reply
machine code, source code , object code, and byte code etc
Hemant

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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