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Based on the software engineer’s intuition and experience

Ad hoc testing

Perhaps the most widely practiced technique remains ad hoc testing: tests are derived relying on the software engineer’s skill, intuition, and experience with similar programs. Ad hoc testing might be useful for identifying special tests, those not easily captured by formalized techniques.

Exploratory testing

Exploratory testing is defined as simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution; that is, the tests are not defined in advance in an established test plan, but are dynamically designed, executed, and modified. The effectiveness of exploratory testing relies on the software engineer’s knowledge, which can be derived from various sources: observed product behavior during testing, familiarity with the application, the platform, the failure process, the type of possible faults and failures, the risk associated with a particular product, and so on.

Specification-based techniques

Equivalence partitioning

The input domain is subdivided into a collection of subsets, or equivalent classes, which are deemed equivalent according to a specified relation, and a representative set of tests (sometimes only one) is taken from each class.

Boundary-value analysis

Test cases are chosen on and near the boundaries of the input domain of variables, with the underlying rationale that many faults tend to concentrate near the extreme values of inputs. An extension of this technique is robustness testing, wherein test cases are also chosen outside the input domain of variables, to test program robustness to unexpected or erroneous inputs.

Decision table

Decision tables represent logical relationships between conditions (roughly, inputs) and actions (roughly, outputs). Test cases are systematically derived by considering every possible combination of conditions and actions. A related technique is cause-effect graphing.

Finite-state machine-based

By modeling a program as a finite state machine, tests can be selected in order to cover states and transitions on it.

Testing from formal specifications

Giving the specifications in a formal language allows for automatic derivation of functional test cases, and, at the same time, provides a reference output, an oracle, for checking test results. Methods exist for deriving test cases from model-based or algebraic specifications.

Random testing

Tests are generated purely at random, not to be confused with statistical testing from the operational profile. This form of testing falls under the heading of the specification-based entry, since at least the input domain must be known, to be able to pick random points within it.

Code-based techniques

Control-flow-based criteria

Control-flow-based coverage criteria is aimed at covering all the statements or blocks of statements in a program, or specified combinations of them. Several coverage criteria have been proposed, like condition/decision coverage. The strongest of the control-flow-based criteria is path testing, which aims to execute all entry-to-exit control flow paths in the flowgraph. Since path testing is generally not feasible because of loops, other less stringent criteria tend to be used in practice, such as statement testing, branch testing, and condition/decision testing. The adequacy of such tests is measured in percentages; for example, when all branches have been executed at least once by the tests, 100% branch coverage is said to have been achieved.

Questions & Answers

Which SDLC Model will you select to develop the system as a software engineer and why?
Subrato Reply
communication techniques in software development
SANJANA Reply
👋👋👋
Aslam
what is communication techniques in software development
Aslam
hii
Ritika
hi
prabhu
Hlw
Subrato
who is Charles Babbage
Marvin Reply
how to do documents in the computer
Mark Reply
Kashmir
akmal
k
akmal
hello
Anil
Hi
Rohid
how are you?
Rohid
Which of these are standards for assessing software processes
own Reply
hello teacher may I give me example of format of software
Aurianne
team a found 342 errors during the software engineering process prior to release. team b found 184 errors. what additional measures would have to be made for projects a and b to determine which of the teams eliminated errors more efficiently? what metrics would you propose to help in making the determination? what historical data might be useful?
Kaviya Reply
it's depend upon software testing and debugging
OMKAR
Hi, Everyone
Rohid
what is coding
Waswa Reply
programming languages is a coding it is also used software development, designing, modeling, etc..
OMKAR
presently I work as a computer engineering what course can I study in any computer institute to enable me promoting myself
Ichaba
AND here lot of course
OMKAR
How to calculate the basic salary of a payroll in Java coding?
Adjei Reply
ত্তচুরভহব
Parvez
hello
Bahadur
but we have tobe serious in k.dge.. what is the meaning of java coding if you are gineous you will answer me
Eyiba
hie
Mark
hi
Rana
Quids on software engineering
Enongene Reply
software testing practice
Prerana
Ho
Rang
definition of software
Baba Reply
define system ,concepts of system and types of system?
Gurmeet Reply
iom
ADNAN
hello
arsh
hari Paulus hai
Hari
System is the way of Execution or a set of principles to do something or any task is called System.
Ayesha
There are many infinite forms and Types of System in different fields as well.
Ayesha
TELL ME ABOUT MAINFRAME?
OMKAR
hi
Md
System is the way of Execution or a set of principles to do something or any task is called System.
Sazed
is very important software engineer or not.
Riyanshu Reply
very important
arsh
2d
Dv
hello
Md
hi
Rohid
hi
martin
what is software engineering
Ravindra Reply
Software engineering is a detailed study of engineering to the design, development and maintenance of software
arsh
what is salary of software engineer
Akash Reply
it depend on organization's and quality
josephat
I think average salary 80000us dollars per year
arsh
what are naturs of software Engineering
BANDARU Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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