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Techniques based on the nature of the application

The above techniques apply to all types of software. However, for some kinds of applications, some additional know-how is required for test derivation. A list of a few specialized testing fields is provided here, based on the nature of the application under test:

  • Object-oriented testing
  • Component-based testing
  • Web-based testing
  • GUI testing
  • Testing of concurrent programs
  • Protocol conformance testing
  • Testing of real-time systems
  • Testing of safety-critical systems (IEEE1228-94)

Selecting and combining techniques

Functional and structural

Specification-based and code-based test techniques are often contrasted as functional vs. structural testing. These two approaches to test selection are not to be seen as alternative but rather as complementary; in fact, they use different sources of information and have proved to highlight different kinds of problems. They could be used in combination, depending on budgetary considerations.

Deterministic vs. random

Test cases can be selected in a deterministic way, according to one of the various techniques listed, or randomly drawn from some distribution of inputs, such as is usually done in reliability testing. Several analytical and empirical comparisons have been conducted to analyze the conditions that make one approach more effective than the other.

Sometimes, test techniques are confused with test objectives. Test techniques are to be viewed as aids which help to ensure the achievement of test objectives. For instance, branch coverage is a popular test technique. Achieving a specified branch coverage measure should not be considered the objective of testing per se: it is a means to improve the chances of finding failures by systematically exercising every program branch out of a decision point. To avoid such misunderstandings, a clear distinction should be made between test-related measures, which provide an evaluation of the program under test based on the observed test outputs, and those which evaluate the thoroughness of the test set.

Measurement is usually considered instrumental to quality analysis. Measurement may also be used to optimize the planning and execution of the tests. Test management can use several process measures to monitor progress.

Evaluation of the program under test (ieee982.1-98)

Program measurements to aid in planning and designing testing (iee982.1-88)

Measures based on program size (for example, source lines of code or function points) or on program structure (like complexity) are used to guide testing. Structural measures can also include measurements among program modules in terms of the frequency with which modules call each other.

Fault types, classification, and statistics (eee1044-93)

The testing literature is rich in classifications and taxonomies of faults. To make testing more effective, it is important to know which types of faults could be found in the software under test, and the relative frequency with which these faults have occurred in the past. This information can be very useful in making quality predictions, as well as for process improvement.

Questions & Answers

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Mark Reply
Which of these are standards for assessing software processes
own Reply
team a found 342 errors during the software engineering process prior to release. team b found 184 errors. what additional measures would have to be made for projects a and b to determine which of the teams eliminated errors more efficiently? what metrics would you propose to help in making the determination? what historical data might be useful?
Kaviya Reply
it's depend upon software testing and debugging
OMKAR
what is coding
Waswa Reply
programming languages is a coding it is also used software development, designing, modeling, etc..
OMKAR
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Ichaba
AND here lot of course
OMKAR
How to calculate the basic salary of a payroll in Java coding?
Adjei Reply
ত্তচুরভহব
Parvez
hello
Bahadur
hi
Sk
but we have tobe serious in k.dge.. what is the meaning of java coding if you are gineous you will answer me
Eyiba
Quids on software engineering
Enongene Reply
software testing practice
Prerana
definition of software
Baba Reply
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Gurmeet Reply
iom
ADNAN
hello
arsh
hari Paulus hai
Hari
System is the way of Execution or a set of principles to do something or any task is called System.
Ayesha
There are many infinite forms and Types of System in different fields as well.
Ayesha
TELL ME ABOUT MAINFRAME?
OMKAR
hi
Md
System is the way of Execution or a set of principles to do something or any task is called System.
Sazed
is very important software engineer or not.
Riyanshu Reply
very important
arsh
2d
Dv
hello
Md
what is software engineering
Ravindra Reply
Software engineering is a detailed study of engineering to the design, development and maintenance of software
arsh
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Akash Reply
it depend on organization's and quality
josephat
I think average salary 80000us dollars per year
arsh
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BANDARU Reply
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BANDARU Reply
what is nature of sotfware
BANDARU
hi
khushboo
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khushboo
code debug
khushboo
in eclipse java
khushboo
@janak can u suggest
khushboo
what is the salary of software engineer
Akash
per month
Akash
please tell me what is the salary of software engineer per monthe
Akash
HELLO ENGINEERS ✍
OMKAR
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Rakesh Reply
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David
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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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