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Comte named the scientific study of social patterns positivism    . He described his philosophy in a series of books called The Course in Positive Philosophy (1830–1842) and A General View of Positivism (1848). He believed that using scientific methods to reveal the laws by which societies and individuals interact would usher in a new “positivist” age of history. While the field and its terminology have grown, sociologists still believe in the positive impact of their work.

Harriet martineau (1802–1876)—the first woman sociologist

Harriet Martineau was a writer who addressed a wide range of social science issues. She was an early observer of social practices, including economics, social class, religion, suicide, government, and women’s rights. Her writing career began in 1832 with a series of stories titled Illustrations of Political Economy , in which she tried to educate ordinary people about the principles of economics (Johnson 2003).

Martineau was the first to translate Comte’s writing from French to English and thereby introduced sociology to English-speaking scholars (Hill 1991). She is also credited with the first systematic methodological international comparisons of social institutions in two of her most famous sociological works: Society in America (1837) and Retrospect of Western Travel (1838). Martineau found the workings of capitalism at odds with the professed moral principles of people in the United States; she pointed out the faults with the free enterprise system in which workers were exploited and impoverished while business owners became wealthy. She further noted that the belief in all being created equal was inconsistent with the lack of women’s rights. Much like Mary Wollstonecraft, Martineau was often discounted in her own time by the male domination of academic sociology.

Karl marx (1818–1883)

A photo of Karl Marx.
Karl Marx was one of the founders of sociology. His ideas about social conflict are still relevant today. (Photo courtesy of John Mayall/Wikimedia Commons)

Karl Marx (1818–1883) was a German philosopher and economist. In 1848 he and Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) coauthored the Communist Manifesto . This book is one of the most influential political manuscripts in history. It also presents Marx's theory of society, which differed from what Comte proposed.

Marx rejected Comte's positivism. He believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production. At the time he was developing his theories, the Industrial Revolution and the rise of capitalism led to great disparities in wealth between the owners of the factories and workers. Capitalism, an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of goods and the means to produce them, grew in many nations.

Marx predicted that inequalities of capitalism would become so extreme that workers would eventually revolt. This would lead to the collapse of capitalism, which would be replaced by communism. Communism is an economic system under which there is no private or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and distributed as needed. Marx believed that communism was a more equitable system than capitalism.

Questions & Answers

Society is a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory, culture and social structures.
Nayef Reply
The concept social institutions
OCIOUS Reply
various social institutions
OCIOUS
explain the concept social institutions and critically discuss various social institutions
OCIOUS
society
Zakirullah
what is society
Zakirullah
Who is Taichoh parsons
Joy Reply
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Annette Reply
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Chisom Reply
Culture i's tha society
Mahatab
right
Mahatab
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MUBARAK
what is ethnocentrism
Subodh
It's about the belief that one's own culture is to other's culture {Ethnocentrism}
Silent
am so glad to be here, never knew there was a group like this
Johnson
Ethnocentrism is believing in the superiority of ones own culture towards others
Johnson
It's about the belief that one's own culture is superior to other's culture {Ethnocentrism}
Silent
culture can be defined as an organised group of people in a given society who share the same believes,norms,Values,history and languages in which one's language, believes,norms and values differs from one another
Bakare
give an example of Ethno centrism
Annette
what are the causes of conflict in the society in relation to agriculture ?
Yonah
sociology+2 first year
Vikram Reply
pls can someone explain the liberal theory on family issue
NA Reply
list the point of social change with management and business administration
Rabiya Reply
what is the relationship sociology between and other social science discipline
Emmy Reply
Waht is crime
muhammads
crime may be say to be as an offence comited that is punishable by the law
Emmy
sociology and other social sciences have one thing in common which is examining an individual and how interact with others in the society
mudakikwa
what are the theories of social change
afya Reply
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Emmy
reasons why we study sociology
OBADIAH Reply
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Emmy
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Agness Reply
how did the industrial revolution contribute to the raise or birth of sociology
Debra
what are social organizations
Mr Reply
social organization is the process in which group or organise people engage in one event or aspect to do or provide something
Umar
Discuss the historical events that led to socialogy as a science
Debra Reply
sociology is the way in which study the society, behavior, value, norms and cultural interaction
Umar Reply
Discuss in details the Historical events which lead to the introduction of Sociology as a science.
Jonathan
The term sociology was coined by French philosopher Auguste Comte in 1838, who for this reason is known as the “Father of Sociology.” Comte felt that science could he used to study the social world. Just as there are testable facts regarding gravity and other natural laws
Umar
but which events really made him conclude that sociology is a science
Debra
Comte thought that scientific analyses could also discover the laws governing our social lives. It was in this context that Comte introduced the concept of positivism to sociology a way to understand the social world based on scientific facts. He believed that, with this new understanding, people
Umar
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Umar
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Debra
Other events of that time period also influenced the development of sociology. The 19th and 20th centuries were times of many social upheavals and changes in the social order that interested the early sociologists. The political revolutions sweeping Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries
Umar
were times of many social upheavals and changes in the social order that interested the early sociologists. The political revolutions sweeping Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries led to a focus on social change and the establishment of social order that still concerns sociologists today.
Umar
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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