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The caste system

A woman in India is shown from behind walking down the street.
India used to have a rigid caste system. The people in the lowest caste suffered from extreme poverty and were shunned by society. Some aspects of India’s defunct caste system remain socially relevant. In this photo, an Indian woman of a specific Hindu caste works in construction, and she demolishes and builds houses. (Photo courtesy of Elessar/flickr)

Caste systems are closed stratification systems in which people can do little or nothing to change their social standing. A caste system    is one in which people are born into their social standing and will remain in it their whole lives. People are assigned occupations regardless of their talents, interests, or potential. There are virtually no opportunities to improve a person's social position.

In the Hindu caste tradition, people were expected to work in the occupation of their caste and to enter into marriage according to their caste. Accepting this social standing was considered a moral duty. Cultural values reinforced the system. Caste systems promote beliefs in fate, destiny, and the will of a higher power, rather than promoting individual freedom as a value. A person who lived in a caste society was socialized to accept his or her social standing.

Although the caste system in India has been officially dismantled, its residual presence in Indian society is deeply embedded. In rural areas, aspects of the tradition are more likely to remain, while urban centers show less evidence of this past. In India’s larger cities, people now have more opportunities to choose their own career paths and marriage partners. As a global center of employment, corporations have introduced merit-based hiring and employment to the nation.

The class system

A class system    is based on both social factors and individual achievement. A class    consists of a set of people who share similar status with regard to factors like wealth, income, education, and occupation. Unlike caste systems, class systems are open. People are free to gain a different level of education or employment than their parents. They can also socialize with and marry members of other classes, which allows people to move from one class to another.

In a class system, occupation is not fixed at birth. Though family and other societal models help guide a person toward a career, personal choice plays a role.

In class systems, people have the option to form exogamous marriages , unions of spouses from different social categories. Marriage in these circumstances is based on values such as love and compatibility rather than on social standing or economics. Though social conformities still exist that encourage people to choose partners within their own class, people are not as pressured to choose marriage partners based solely on those elements. Marriage to a partner from the same social background is an endogamous union .

Meritocracy

Meritocracy is an ideal system based on the belief that social stratification is the result of personal effort—or merit—that determines social standing. High levels of effort will lead to a high social position, and vice versa. The concept of meritocracy is an ideal—because a society has never existed where social rank was based purely on merit. Because of the complex structure of societies, processes like socialization, and the realities of economic systems, social standing is influenced by multiple factors—not merit alone. Inheritance and pressure to conform to norms, for instance, disrupt the notion of a pure meritocracy. While a meritocracy has never existed, sociologists see aspects of meritocracies in modern societies when they study the role of academic and job performance and the systems in place for evaluating and rewarding achievement in these areas.

Questions & Answers

someone kindly help me.. explain 15reasons why business people should study sociology
KURIA Reply
I need the answer
Tsegaye
because business directly concern with people life and so related with sociology
Syed
Sociology is study of society, from economy to symbols it's covers everything Even Goffman's "presentation of self ' is a concept that needs introspection . You don't dive in psyche of an individual but "we" as whole. To understand 'collective consciousness'
supriya
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supriya
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Yussuf Reply
A broad knowledge about society
Mohamed
that's what my heart desire
Balasale
limit of anxiety disorder ?
AMAZING Reply
hi
Pintu
limit of anxiety disorder is a kind of madness that is presented in almost all the human beings...
Pintu
who is the founder of sociology
Ali Reply
Auguste Comte
Yuki
Socialogical prospective_imagination.
Zeina Reply
what is Plantation Society?
Renee
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Rabecca Reply
is study os social interaction and the society
gift
Hi
Renee
Hi
shewayriga
what is Plantation society
Renee
please I need your help
Renee
hi
ahindra
hi 2
Tariq
What are the main element of the Strain Theory?
Renee Reply
Examine four factors that undermines the home's ability to socialize the child
Francis Reply
what is a unit of analysis
Gcobani Reply
A unit of analysis could be considered as the subject that you are focusing in a social study. That unit could be also many entities.
Pascal
what role does globalization play in modern slavery?
Kay Reply
Globalization play a great role in modern slavery. Why? because, globalization contributes people as rich to be more powerful and go to new areas in order to put people of these different a horizons to fall in a great slavery.
Pascal
roughly speaking, I think that globalization phenomenon had more inconveniences than advantages even if there are also advantages for people who knows how to take a part for. Globalization could show us a new state of slavery if it's not use appropriately.
Pascal
what are the characteristics of scientific methods?
Brandina Reply
its emirical, systematic
gift
can someone please help me? What is social statistics?
Moses Reply
As I know, I could describe social statistics as a science who use statistics. That science make a study by using quantitative and qualitative numbers. And also make interpretation of these quantitative and qualitative numbers in order to solve a problem and understand all about this.
Pascal
Difference and realtionship between sociology and economivs
Temjensangla Reply
Conclusion for difference and realtionship between sociology and economics
Temjensangla
What is economics
Temjensangla
In conclusion, I could said that sociology it's a study of man and his habits, behaviours and interactions between humans and the environment where he lives.
Pascal
sociology could embrace many domains of the human culture.
Pascal
In a second time, economics could be define as a study economics structures in order create wealth.
Pascal
Nowadays, sociology and economics are completely integrated and linked. Why? Because, sociology try to study economics structures in order to help firms... to develop and conquer markets by understanding attitudes, behaviours of the costumers.
Pascal
In regard on what I had said before. Sociology makes a study of economics and economics takes also advantages of sociology as a tool. economics depends more on sociology even if there are complementary.
Pascal
I just want to know the main sociopolitical and economic factors behind the emergency of sociology.
david
it took too long to understand the subject matter of sociology. So, how could you help on tgis
Mohamed
what is the origin and development of socialogy
Talha Reply
Explain how man harnessed of nature for his own use
Cali
How? I think that man realized that there is natural elements that he could dominate and that he could not. A this moment, man start a reflexion in order to take a full profit of nature by a meticulous study of these different elements. (1)
Pascal
(2) And now we could see that after this meticulous study of the nature man had also observe nature. Man harnessed of nature for example by creating air planes, houses, cars...
Pascal
As I was read, sociology comes from philosophy.
Pascal
sociological reference and examples of each section
Alex Reply
Discuss the following isolated case Anna Case,Isabelle case,Genie case
Alex

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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