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This photo depicts medical workers with a face mask and gloves training for safety so they can enter infection zones.
Medical personnel are at the front lines of extremely dangerous work. Personal protective clothing is essential for any health worker entering an infection zone, as shown by these trainees for the UK's National Health Service. (Photo courtesy of DFID - UK Department for International Development/flickr)

According to the World Health Organization and ABC Health News, on March 19, 2014 a "mystery" hemorrhagic fever outbreak occurred in Liberia and Sierra Leone. This outbreak was later confirmed to be Ebola, a disease first discovered in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. The 2014 outbreak started a chain reaction in West Africa, sickening more than 8,000 people and leaving more than 4,000 dead by October.

At the time of this writing, Ebola is national news in the United States, and certainly global news as well. Infection of U.S. medical staff (both in West Africa and at home) has led to much fear and distrust, and discussion of restrictions on flights from West Africa was one proposed way to stop the spread of the disease. Ebola first entered the United States via U.S. missionary medical staff who were infected in West Africa and then transported home for treatment. The case of Thomas Eric Duncan, who unwittingly imported Ebola into the United States as he flew from Liberia to Texas in September 2014 to visit family, increased the level of fear.

How do we best respond to this horrific virus? Restrict visitors from West Africa, enhance training and protective gear for all U.S. medical workers and law enforcement? Many concerns surround this disease and few agree upon the appropriate response. You can follow the progression of the outbreak at (External Link) .

The Ebola case brings many issues to the forefront. Are we in the cross-hairs of a large-scale Ebola epidemic in the United States? Or are the few cases of infection (primarily of health professionals) as far as the disease will spread in the United States? In the short term, how do we best prevent, identify, and treat current and potential cases?

The sociology of health encompasses social epidemiology, disease, mental health, disability, and medicalization. The way that we perceive health and illness is in constant evolution. As we learn to control existing diseases, new diseases develop. As our society evolves to be more global, the way that diseases spread evolves with it.

What does “health” mean to you? Do you believe that there are too many people taking medications in U.S. society? Are you skeptical about people claiming they are “addicted” to gambling or “addicted” to sex? Can you think of anything that was historically considered a disease but is now considered within a range of normality? Or anything that has recently become known as a disease that before was considered evidence of laziness or other character flaws? Do you believe all children should receive vaccinations? These are questions examined in the sociology of health.

Sociologists may also understand these issues more fully by considering them through one of the main theoretical perspectives of the discipline. The functionalist perspective is a macroanalytical perspective that looks at the big picture and focuses on the way that all aspects of society are integral to the continued health and viability of the whole. For those working within the functionalist perspective, the focus is on how healthy individuals have the most to contribute to the stability of society. Functionalists might study the most efficient way to restore “sick” individuals to a healthy state. The conflict perspective is another macroanalytical perspective that focuses on the creation and reproduction of inequality. Someone applying the conflict perspective might focus on inequalities within the health system itself, by looking at disparities in race, ethnicity, gender, and age. Someone applying the interactionist perspective to health might focus on how people understand their health, and how their health affects their relationships with the people in their lives.

References

ABC News Health News. "Ebola in America, Timeline of a Deadly Virus." Retrieved Oct. 23rd, 2014 ( (External Link) ).

Centers for Disease Control. 2011b.“Pertussis.” The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 15, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Conrad, Peter, and Kristin Barker. 2010. “The Social Construction of Illness: Key Insights and Policy Implications.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 51:67–79.

CNN. 2011. “Retracted Autism Study an 'Elaborate Fraud,' British Journal Finds.” CNN , January 5. Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Devlin, Kate. 2008. “Measles worry MMR as vaccination rates stall.” The Telegraph , September 24. Retrieved January 19, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Sugerman, David E., Albert E. Barskey, Maryann G. Delea, Ismael R. Ortega-Sanchez, Daoling Bi, Kimberly J. Ralston, Paul A. Rota, Karen Waters-Montijo, and Charles W. LeBaron. 2010. “Measles Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population, San Diego, 2008: Role of the Intentionally Undervaccinated.” Pediatrics 125(4):747–755. Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

World Health Organization. 2014. "Global Alert and Response." Retrieved Oct. 23rd 2014 ( (External Link) ).

Zacharyczuk, Colleen. 2011. “Myriad causes contributed to California pertussis outbreak.” Thorofar, NJ: Pediatric Supersite. Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Questions & Answers

agree , people often think of street crime
Anastasia Reply
use value of commondity
Ritu Reply
how many types of concepts
Ritu Reply
who is the founder of sociology
Yasir Reply
why we study sociology?
Chu Reply
there is a lot of reason that's why we study sociology ... there is no one specific reason I think it's enough to know why youstudy .. I think your question is subjective .
Ritu
I believe that there is no need to tell a sociology student that why do we have to study sociology .. try to understand my point of view look .. if i give you answer of your question that will be subjective .. if you want a general reason so you can read a in books ..
Ritu
l lMillions of books are full of it ..with due respect I am suggesting you to find reason to yourself .. it will give you a better answer than us ..
Ritu
I have thousands of answers to your question but I believe If you try to know by yourself, it will be helpful to know about why we study sociology ..Sociology is not such a subject that we have told something about it and everything has become clear .. No it is not .. Sociology is very different
Ritu
you have to realize ..in short your is easy but no easy as it looks I can give you ans .but if you find by yourself So by doing this you will not forget that life time
Ritu
as we know Some questions look as objective as the outside, and they are absolutely subjective from the inside. I am telling you this in such a detail so that you can do the study yourself.I hope you understand and have not misinterpreted my words
Ritu
for self-development
Anastasia
what is law of trade
Ritu Reply
exchange of value
Sourabh
please could you explain it
Ritu
seller has value for money and buyer has a value for the product he wants hence the basic law of trade is exchange of value now the value accorded to an object can be subjective, but in modern capitalist society, the social and economical institutions have a monopoly of defining value
Sourabh
ok ok
Ritu
what is difference between factor and cause
Ritu Reply
cause is responsible for initiating a phenomena while factor is just one aspect of it. eg: If you want to find the cause of any phenomena, you will find it at the end of your research. But factors will be found during the process of determining the cause and can aid in it.
Sourabh
hmmm good job .and good observation
Ritu
what are the types of sociology
Jerry Reply
There are Two types of sociology. Namely 1) Qualitative sociology 2) Quantitative Sociology.
Syed
But there are sociological trends and theories which came into light over the period of time
Ashish
types can be classified on basis of methodology (qualitative, quantitative, interpretative) on basis of subject matter (sociology of crime, law etc) on basis of perspectives (conflict, structural-functionalist) also historical classification like modernism, post modernism etc.
Sourabh
Hey
Muhammad
every one hear
Muhammad
They are two types of sociology; 1, Basic (pure) sociology and 2,Apply sociology.
Mohamed
p lease if all of you don't mind .. could share your nationalities... may this helpfull in understanding about our culture ..
Ritu Reply
..
Ritu
Indian
Sourabh
may this platform can give us cultural and other relevant knowledge about our societies if we share
Ritu
may this platform can give usefull and relevant knowledge about our socities and cutures
Ritu
what is an approaches bro
Muhammad
what?
Ritu
Nigerian
Amoo
well done 👍 share guys
Ritu
don't worry there is no harm to share about nationalities
Ritu
Indian
SHIVAM
thanks 😊
Ritu
for sharing nationality
Ritu
😁
Amoo
oops I did not even tell about myself .I am fully indian
Ritu
Is that all?
Ritu
the different kind of term for collective behavior is a. groip with same thinking
LISA Reply
plz answer,The grades in various subjects of a student are given below .Testat 5%level of significance that there is sognificant difference ib grades.Mathematics= 72,80,83,75.Statistics=81,74,77,88.English=82,90,87,80.Research=74,71,77,70.
Asma
"same thinking" seems a bit too structured for collective behaviour which is spontaneous and unstructured.
Sourabh
crowd,social moments,moral panic,riots ,disaster,mobs,riots,mass hysteria ,fads and crazes are some kind of collective behaviour
Ritu
one example of collective behaviour like we sing national anthem
Ritu
Ritu verma you are right
Amoo
could all of you share about in which nationality you belong
Ritu Reply
please don't take it other way I am asking bcz it will be good for all to know about nationality since we connected due to this group ... And how many countries have this app spread, how many countries have people connected
Ritu
India
Himanshu
ok
Ritu
Where can find the exam past paper and exercises of sociology?
Sammi Reply
you may search in you tube ... there are some question papers available ..
Ritu
in the city of Pakistan
Abid
🙄🙄
Abid
😥😥😥
Abid
is there. no you tube
Ritu
pls what's today's discussion all about?
Ojewande Reply
every one can start any relevant topic on sociology... bcz every question is imp about society
Ritu
explain the term subculture
Peter
identify and explain four types of subculture in the school
Peter
explain why the status of the teacher is important in schools
Peter
explain the meaning of social stratification
Peter
a subculture is just what is sound like a smaller culture group within a larger culture; people of a subculture are a part of the larger culture but also share a specific identity with in a small group
Ritu
thousands of subculture exits within united state ethnic and racial share language,food and costume of Thier heritage
Ritu
social stratification means .. Differentiation of posts is the main belief of social stratification. Social norms are taught through social stratification.
Ritu
In social stratification, the relationship with different situations becomes part of the social system. In a stratified society, inequality is found in people.According to which some people are considered higher or lower than others
Ritu
respected sir u r asking about why a status of teacher is imp I'm schools.. sir Without a teacher, there cannot be a school. Even a society cannot imagine ... Ancient Time Selekar has changed the nature of the teacher so far. Values ​​did not decrease ..
Ritu
teachers are very important for make a future of students .. everyone comes in this world with some special power ... but He is a teacher who makes a student release his internal power ..
Ritu
Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam has told in one of his autobiography 'The Power of Prayer' that .." we came with a Divine Fire in Us."That Divine Fire cannot be achieved without teacher's help.
Ritu
what's is difference between premonition and foreknowledge
Ritu Reply
hello
suraj
g
Aimal
?
Ritu
difference between prescience and premonition is that prescience is knowledge of events before they take place; foresight; foreknowledge while premonition is a clairvoyant or clairaudient experience, such as a dream, which resonates with so
Aimal
hi
APARNA
in short foreknowledge is the knowledge of something before it's happened .and premonition a knowledgeof something is going to happen specially unpleasant
Ritu
..
Ritu
Hey bro
Muhammad
Who is the father of modern sociology
Shah Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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