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Photo of a crowded Tahirir Square in Cairo, Egypt where many people in the crowd are waiving Egyptian flags in the air
In 2011, thousands of Egyptian citizens demonstrated in the streets and protested political repression by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (Photo courtesy of Jonathan Rashad/flickr)

Hosni Mubarak had been the President of Egypt for nearly thirty years when massive public uprisings caused him to step down in 2011. Gaining the presidency in 1981 when President Anwar Sadat was assassinated, Mubarak had maintained his regime through a series of “monopoly” elections in which he was the only candidate. Popular unrest first drew significant notice in 2004, and by early 2011 thousands of Egyptians had begun protesting political oppression through demonstrations in the streets of several Egyptian cities, including the capital city of Cairo. There was sporadic violence between demonstrators and the military, but eventually Mubarak resigned and left the country. Within a year, a free, multicandidate election was held in Egypt.

The "Arab Spring" refers to a series of uprisings in various countries throughout the Middle East, including Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Syria, Tunisia, Qatar, and Yemen. The extent of protest has varied widely among these countries, as have the outcomes, but all were based on popular uprisings of the people, who were dissatisfied with their respective government leaders but were unable to create change by less extreme methods. In countries such as Tunisia and Egypt, revolution did involve some violence, but relatively less than in other Middle Eastern countries. In Libya, the repressive regime of Muammar Gaddafi was brought to an end after forty-two years. The number of causalities reported differs depending on the source; the exact number is still unknown, but it is estimated to be in the thousands.

References

The National. 2011. “The Arab Spring Country by County” The National , June 17. Retrieved October 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

World Health Organization. 2012. “Libya Crisis; August 2011 Update” Retrieved October 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

Questions & Answers

What is culture?
Aniefuna Reply
Is a total way of life
Fahad
What was Durkheim's definition of religion
Christian Reply
India is characterized by ?
Tumbemo Reply
What is the different between social static
Brendah Reply
define religion
Nayyar
what is social facts?
usman Reply
How many types of central tendency
khatun Reply
we have 3 types which are mean, median and mode
Ann
ya explain it.
Awusu
How far is Marxist Assession true. That religion is just an opium of people
Thulani Reply
what is social mobility
Hacking Reply
how in the he day-to-day world is religion ruling socialogy
Mugimba Reply
By setting it's own standard of acceptable norms and behaviours, using the Holy books etc
Chimba
what are the social institutions that maintain social control in the society
Uzair Reply
what is socialization
Uzair
what is sociology
Nayyar
sociology is study of the society. it's also a social science course or mirror through which human beings look into the society.
Ameh
the social institutions are : family education religion politics
ravi
sagars siddant ke janak kon hai
Md
explain the characteristics of planned social change
Hellen Reply
important of culture
Owolabi
what is social research
Rafaqat Reply
what is soft science
Rafaqat
what is fertility
gleyn Reply
what is social interaction
Zakir Reply
the 2 pespetives
Bendu
relationship between two or more individuals through social media, peer group, groups etc
Ann
conversation between two or few people in a organisation e.g school, peer group
Zaki
hi
benny
What is a perspective
Christian
A child is born a tabularrasa
Judith Reply
a child is born a tabularrasa.discuss the assetion
Judith

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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