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A graph titled Public Elementary-Secondary School System Revenue by Source and State: Fiscal Year 2012. The graph shows how much money schools in all 50 states get from federal revenue, state revenue, and local revenue. South Dakota gets about 1.2 billion total funding. North Dakota gets about 1.2 billion total funding.  The District of Columbia gets about 1.25 billion total funding.  Vermont gets about 1.6 billion in funding. Montana gets about 1.62 billion total funding.  Wyoming gets about 1.62 billion in funding. Delaware gets about 1.8 billion total funding. Idaho gets about 1.9 billion total funding. Rhode Island gets about 2.1 billion total funding.  Alaska gets about 2.2 billion total funding. Hawaii gets about 2.5 billion total funding. Maine gets about 2.5 billion total funding. New Hampshire gets about 2.7 billion total funding. New Mexico gets about 3.5 billon total funding.  Nebraska gets about 3.6 billion total funding. West Virginia gets about 3.9 billion total funding. Nevada gets about 4.1 billion total funding. Utah gets about 4.15 billion total funding. Mississippi gets about 4.3 billion total funding. Arkansas gets about 5.1 billion total funding. Kansas gets about 5.5 billion total funding. Oklahoma gets about 5.6 billion total funding. Iowa gets about 6 billion total funding. Oregon gets about 6 billion total funding. Alabama gets about 7 billion total funding. Kentucky gets about 7 billion total funding. Arizona gets about 7.2 billion total funding. South Carolina gets about 7.2 billion total funding. Louisiana gets about 7.3 billion total funding. Colorado gets about 8 billion total funding. Tennessee gets about 8.3 billion total funding. Connecticut gets about 9.9 billion total funding. Missouri gets about 9.9 billion total funding. Wisconsin gets about 11 billion total funding. Washington gets about 12 billion total funding. Indiana gets about 13 billion total funding. North Carolina gets about 13.5 billion total funding. Maryland gets about 14 billion total funding. Virginia gets about 10.5 billion total funding. Massachusetts gets about 16 billion total funding. Georgia gets about 18 billion total funding. Michigan 18 billion total funding. Ohio gets about 22 billion total funding. Florida gets about 24 billion total funding. Pennsylvania gets about 26 billion total funding. New Jersey gets about 24 billion total funding. Illinois gets about 28 billion total funding.  Texas gets about 49 billion total funding. New York gets about 58 billion total funding. California gets about 65 billion total funding.
How has your state’s revenue affected your educational opportunities? (Graph courtesy of Census of Governments: Survey of School System Finances 2012)

A precedent for universal access to education in the United States was set with the 1972 U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia’s decision in Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia . This case was brought on the behalf of seven school-age children with special needs who argued that the school board was denying their access to free public education. The school board maintained that the children’s “exceptional” needs, which included mental retardation and mental illness, precluded their right to be educated for free in a public school setting. The board argued that the cost of educating these children would be too expensive and that the children would therefore have to remain at home without access to education.

This case was resolved in a hearing without any trial. The judge, Joseph Cornelius Waddy, upheld the students’ right to education, finding that they were to be given either public education services or private education paid for by the Washington, D.C., board of education. He noted that

Constitutional rights must be afforded citizens despite the greater expense involved … the District of Columbia’s interest in educating the excluded children clearly must outweigh its interest in preserving its financial resources. … The inadequacies of the District of Columbia Public School System whether occasioned by insufficient funding or administrative inefficiency, certainly cannot be permitted to bear more heavily on the “exceptional” or handicapped child than on the normal child ( Mills v. Board of Education 1972).

Today, the optimal way to include differently abled students in standard classrooms is still being researched and debated. “Inclusion” is a method that involves complete immersion in a standard classroom, whereas “mainstreaming” balances time in a special-needs classroom with standard classroom participation. There continues to be social debate surrounding how to implement the ideal of universal access to education.

Summary

Educational systems around the world have many differences, though the same factors—including resources and money—affect every educational system. Educational distribution is a major issue in many nations, including in the United States, where the amount of money spent per student varies greatly by state. Education happens through both formal and informal systems; both foster cultural transmission. Universal access to education is a worldwide concern.

Short answer

Has there ever been a time when your formal and informal educations in the same setting were at odds? How did you overcome that disconnect?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Do you believe free access to schools has achieved its intended goal? Explain.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Further research

Though it’s a struggle, education is continually being improved in the developing world. To learn how educational programs are being fostered worldwide, explore the Education section of the Center for Global Development’s website: (External Link)

References

Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2010. "What We Can Learn from Finland's Successful School Reform." NEA Today Magazine. Retrieved December 12, 2014. ( (External Link) )..

Durkheim, Emile. 1898 [1956]. Education and Sociology . New York: Free Press.

Gross-Loh, Christine. 2014. "Finnish Education Chief: 'We Created a School System Based on Equality.'" The Atlantic. Retrieved December 12, 2014. ( (External Link) ).

Mills v. Board of Education , 348 DC 866 (1972).

National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. 2006. Measuring UP: The National Report Card on Higher Education . Retrieved December 9, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

National Public Radio. 2010. “Study Confirms U.S. Falling Behind in Education.” All Things Considered , December 10. Retrieved December 9, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Pellissier, Hank. 2010. “High Test Scores, Higher Expectations, and Presidential Hype.” Great Schools . Retrieved January 17, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Rampell, Catherine. 2009. “Of All States, New York’s Schools Spend Most Money Per Pupil.” Economix . Retrieved December 15, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

U.S. Census Bureau. 2014. "Public Education Finances 2012." Retrieved December 12, 2014. ( (External Link) ).

World Bank. 2011. “Education in Afghanistan.” Retrieved December 14, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Questions & Answers

what is the origin and development of sociology?
namiak Reply
can any one will differentiate between social movement and pressure group?
Nasiru Reply
what is the origin and development of sociology?
namiak
Do you believe that Americans may be somewhat more ethnocentric than people in the other Western industrial nations? If so, why might this be the case? If not, why is this widely believed?
Elizabeth Reply
first of all the nation have the belive an faith in their ritualistic religion people go in different temple but they don't knew the culture and the ritual of all religions so human make the braches of religion and human follows it also with this Americans also follow their own god and goodness ...
unknown
Yes, because Americans are more inclined to their culture and want to superimpose theirs to the entire world. They always show their supremacy.
Hemendra
why do people deviate from socital norms
cornelius Reply
people deviate from scital norms because their reputation matter that is why they do not involve themself in big issue of society to solve the problem. They see what is going on they are aslo intrested to knew but they not say anything on that time its a human nature which is selfishness kind...
unknown
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unknown
what*
unknown
what is the difference between sociology, physiology and
Evelyn Reply
what is sociology
Jobee Reply
Sociology is the study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction and culture of everyday life. 
Aamirah
Sociology is simply the study of culture and society
Kooko
sociology is a social science that studies human behavior
Nelly
sociology stands socious. sociology is the study of social awareness to knew the knowlege of social culture and social issue .sociology aways follow the instruction of social behavior in the society . it have some rule and regulation
unknown
sociology is the study of culture and individual behavior of a particular society or community
galiwango
yes August comte is a father of sociology
Salahu Reply
May You give me "Deviance and Conformity" For assignment
Mankai Reply
what is deviance
Abdullahi
Deviance means deviate behaviour (to safe him or her from any social issue of society)and conformity for assignment means conform for work (HE OR SHE is willing to do that work with full of conformation )
unknown
definition of culture
Ameh Reply
culture is habit of a society, pattern of social interaction and life style
fadi
Culture is the totality ways of peoples life.
Nwoye
what do you make of Karl max's contribution to sociology?
Kategaya Reply
Classic Marxist theory has been criticised for being economically deterministic. Marx argued that 'economic laws' determined not only the shape of society but also the direction of history itself. ... The Communist Revolutions in Eastern Europe did not lead to greater equality and freedom
Yusuf Reply
exactly
Muhammed
sociology ke father kaun hai
Akash
i think auguste comte
fadi
auguste comte
Kinnu
Help me discuss the criticism against Marx's ideal society.
Chika Reply
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Buket
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fadi
the criticizm of society is calld various of peopel to society ant society to people
Prince
what is a monogamous family?
Mazeena Reply
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Suliman Reply
sociology is the scientific study of human society and social behavior.
Lizzy
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Lizzy Reply
human behavior is a science as it has to do with human adaption to its environment
naomi
is the study of a group of scientist nature and their interactions and their common spices.
Dwomoh
is the scientific study of Human behaviour
Alice
sacop
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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