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Fourth, precipitating factors spur collective behavior; this is the emergence of a dramatic event. The fifth condition is mobilization for action , when leaders emerge to direct a crowd to action. The final condition relates to action by the agents. Called social control , it is the only way to end the collective behavior episode (Smelser 1962).

A real-life example of these conditions occurred after the fatal police shooting of teenager Michael Brown, an unarmed eighteen-year-old African American, in Ferguson, MO on August 9, 2014. The shooting drew national attention almost immediately. A large group of mostly black, local residents assembled in protest—a classic example of structural conduciveness. When the community perceived that the police were not acting in the people's interest and were withholding the name of the officer, structural strain became evident. A growing generalized belief evolved as the crowd of protesters were met with heavily armed police in military-style protective uniforms accompanied by an armored vehicle. The precipitating factor of the arrival of the police spurred greater collective behavior as the residents mobilized by assembling a parade down the street. Ultimately they were met with tear gas, pepper spray, and rubber bullets used by the police acting as agents of social control. The element of social control escalated over the following days until August 18, when the governor called in the National Guard.

A masked officer with a shield is shown here.
Agents of social control bring collective behavior to an end. (Photo courtesy of hozinja/flickr)

Assembling perspective

Interactionist sociologist Clark McPhail (1991) developed assembling perspective     , another system for understanding collective behavior that credited individuals in crowds as rational beings. Unlike previous theories, this theory refocuses attention from collective behavior to collective action. Remember that collective behavior is a noninstitutionalized gathering, whereas collective action is based on a shared interest. McPhail’s theory focused primarily on the processes associated with crowd behavior, plus the lifecycle of gatherings. He identified several instances of convergent or collective behavior, as shown on the chart below.

Clark McPhail identified various circumstances of convergent and collective behavior (McPhail 1991).
Type of crowd Description Example
Convergence clusters Family and friends who travel together Carpooling parents take several children to the movies
Convergent orientation Group all facing the same direction A semi-circle around a stage
Collective vocalization Sounds or noises made collectively Screams on a roller coaster
Collective verbalization Collective and simultaneous participation in a speech or song Pledge of Allegiance in the school classroom
Collective gesticulation Body parts forming symbols The YMCA dance
Collective manipulation Objects collectively moved around Holding signs at a protest rally
Collective locomotion The direction and rate of movement to the event Children running to an ice cream truck

As useful as this is for understanding the components of how crowds come together, many sociologists criticize its lack of attention on the large cultural context of the described behaviors, instead focusing on individual actions.

Summary

Collective behavior is noninstitutionalized activity in which several people voluntarily engage. There are three different forms of collective behavior: crowd, mass, and public. There are three main theories on collective behavior. The first, the emergent-norm perspective, emphasizes the importance of social norms in crowd behavior. The next, the value-added theory, is a functionalist perspective that states that several preconditions must be in place for collective behavior to occur. Finally the assembling perspective focuses on collective action rather than collective behavior, addressing the processes associated with crowd behavior and the lifecycle and various categories of gatherings.

Short answer

Discuss the differences between a mass and a crowd. What is an example of each? What sets them apart? What do they share in common?

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Can you think of a time when your behavior in a crowd was dictated by the circumstances? Give an example of emergent-norm perspective, using your own experience.

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Discuss the differences between an acting crowd and a collective crowd. Give examples of each.

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Imagine you are at a rally protesting nuclear energy use. Walk us through the hypothetical rally using the value-added theory, imagining it meets all the stages.

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References

Blumer, Herbert. 1969. “Collective Behavior.” Pp. 67–121 in Principles of Sociology , edited by A.M. Lee. New York: Barnes and Noble.

LeBon, Gustave. 1960 [1895]. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind . New York: Viking Press.

Lofland, John. 1993. “Collective Behavior: The Elementary Forms.” Pp. 70–75 in Collective Behavior and Social Movements , edited by Russel Curtis and Benigno Aguirre. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

McPhail, Clark. 1991. The Myth of the Madding Crowd . New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Smelser, Neil J. 1963. Theory of Collective Behavior . New York: Free Press.

Turner, Ralph, and Lewis M. Killian. 1993. Collective Behavior . 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice Hall.

Questions & Answers

I have an assignment on sociology to interview people who have vulnerable diseases such as AIDS, Hepatitis, Cancer, Diabetes etc can someone advice me how to approach them because it's very difficult for me to do it
Mary Reply
Treat them with kindness like you would anyone else. No one likes to be treated with kid gloves - it's insulting and makes anyone feel marginalized. Do not approach them with piety (i.e., asking 'Are you okay?' with the slight head tilt). It's insulting and they will likely dismiss you immediately.
andi
treat them like you are a patient like also giving them motivational stories, play games with them
Great
sociological perspective
Davison Reply
When you are sick what should you do?You consult a physician likewise when the society is not functioning well what should the government do?Also consult a sociologist
Joseph Reply
hi where are you live mr joseph
Abdinasir
yes Abdinasir "in somalia"
yuusuf
and you
yuusuf
hy
nura
Hy is a for skin in Swedish.
Joakim
hi
yuusuf
Hi
Joakim
Hello everyone, who is from cameroon here because am tired with the 2 weeks ghost town here especially in North and South West region and I have not even done my sociology assignment I don't know were to start
Mary
hi everyone
Tariq
am new in this field I was given an assignment any one knows how to, need help
Davison
just give a tip of the assignment
Mary
Can you bring the assignment's question on board? if no than how one will know the assignment's question?
Emmanuel
who here for now?
Emmanuel
Is there anyone in here?
Emmanuel
how sociology affects in them adversity in age of globilization
mohamed
I leave in Nigeria
Joseph
hi
saad
Sociology affects people in many ways for instance, urban people's thought, life style, way of living is totally different than people live in rural areas. availability of Internet has impact on people because we spend leisure time with friends if we get time but now It's change due to internet.
saad
It depends on your geographic location, government, and what type of physician you are in need of. Always - regardless of where you reside - make certain that your doctor is aligned with an organization for physicians seeking higher ethical standards.
andi
hi Great from Zimbabwe ....and I'm new in this field
Great
Am a Nigeria
Olumide
hai
Machila
what is the relevance of sociology?
Love Reply
how conflict theory differs from functionalist theory in relation to education
kealeboga Reply
Education is a major social institution that helps transmit information, beliefs, and skills through formal training or teaching. Education plays a hug role across the world.
Timi
discuss how some symbolic interactionist theories view the family in relation to socialisation
kealeboga
how can counteract biases?
Hawa Reply
is so splendid
Aminu
hi
Aminu
how r u
Farhana
help me in my sociology questions
Farhana
yes
ali
hi sociologist society
yasir
what is social phenomena and it's nature
yasir
Hell am Ilham
Ilham
pls i want to understand dis course because my lecturer x not helping me at all he don't explain in details
Ilham
what do sociologists study?
Rachel Reply
define sociology of culture ?
Qamar
define sociology in culture ?
Qamar
Tell me how can I easily differentiate the methodology vs methods?
Rk Reply
hi
Praveen
Halo
Rk
hi
Hope
hallo how are you
Chilals
m fine nd u
ali
Good morning friends
Md
what is positivism anyone explain this
Amarkhan
The process of social change in the Caribbean society can not be analyzed using the major macro European paradigm as they ignore the caribbean's reality, to what extent is this statement true?
Keron Reply
True
Andrew
I am a PhD candidate and i am creating a Trinidad and Tobago 🇹🇹 centric model
Andrew
am a social work trainee.I want to thank you all for your questions and answers,they really useful to me. so thanks en keep it up
Fatoumatta
why is it true @Andrew
Keron
np. if u in trinidad i may fly home in a few weeks. provided i get a cheap flight for under 1000 us..lmao. you will do well i not worried. Be proud of your caribbean identity
Andrew
It is true because the theories and grounded in their culture.
Andrew
Think about it. If you sample is apples and my sample is 🍇 while the numbers may be the same the output would be different.
Andrew
forgive my fruit metaphor i love food
Andrew
Furthermore when you study Philosophy principles which are way higher than sociological principles you realize that the methodological assumptions (values) of various societies are different.
Andrew
Best FIT will always be better than Best PRACTICES! Create your own.
Andrew
are*
Andrew
It boils down to the demographics of your sample
Andrew
If you have to get a representative sample it must be representative of the Society aka the Population you sampling. Different Societal Structure different representative sample. hint hint. A British model can never be transferred to a Trinidad Society.
Andrew
this is a question for my sociology for project.... I need help
Keron
what is the caribbean's reality?
Keron
what is the Macro European Paradigm?
Keron
oh and Andrew I am from Jamaica
Keron
deconstruct the theme. Macro - large or big Caribbean Thinking (paradigm)
Andrew
just write why you think Jamaican thinking is better than England
Andrew
thats the crux of the question
Andrew
and the Caribbean's reality is?
Keron
sigh
Andrew
bro reality is relative
Andrew
the question demands u think
Andrew
how do u define Caribbean reality
Andrew
the music we listen, the food we eat, how we worship, our laws etc
Keron
What is psychology and discuss its major factors
Peace
explain in details five agents of sociology
Kaoma
Andrew what factors that makes people to stop socialising
Kaoma
I am not agree to data analysis and payment
Dipeshkumar Reply
child marriage with queations
manoj Reply
how has sociology contributed to the welfare of the society?
Teza Reply
scholars definition of culture
Sekinat Reply
Can anyone pliz tell me the difference between Epistemology and Ontology? Also how it relates to each other?
Rk Reply
in which reference did u get those two words?
Teza
I found these two words in the area of social research and what I like to know is the usage of these two in doing social research.
Rk
epistemology - schools of thought
Andrew
Ontology the categorization
Andrew
epistemology + ontology = knowledge
Andrew
Epistemology is the study of knowledge. One of the 3 branches of Metaphysics.
Leonard
OK I see
Keron
Ontology and Being are the other 2. They both study being... Maybe it's the 2 branches of Metaphysics?
Leonard
Ooops. Epistemology is one of the 5 main branches of Philosophy. Ontology is a branch of Metaphysics and Metaphysics is one of the 5 main branches of Philosophy. These two words are Philosophy terminology.
Leonard
Thanks!!
Rk
what is limited informal norm
buhle Reply
limited informal customary norm
buhle

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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