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About this book

Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e , an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at info@openstaxcollege.org.

To the student

This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the instructor

This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to info@openstaxcollege.org so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General approach

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the second edition

Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

Questions & Answers

what is Deviation
Ritu Reply
define divison of lavour
Bd Reply
define division of lavour
Bd
But he needs different kinds of things. This need connects each person with the other.
Ritu
he got this concept to August compte
Ritu
for example; it connected also to a humen body. Such as various parts of the body, hands, sides, nose legs, etc., while doing their specific work, they have an independent existence.
Ritu
so this is division of labor ..ab naw how durkheim has connected with organic solidarity ...
Ritu
yes u r ryt
Avishkar
According to this, these organs will work only when they cooperate with each other .... It means division of labor and specialization in our body too.
Ritu
what is Reification
Naseer Reply
Description In Marxism, reification (German: Verdinglichung, lit. transl. "making into a thing") is the process by which social relations are perceived as inherent attributes of the people involved in them, or attributes of some product of the relation, such as a traded commodity.
Miss
guise I am reading about abstract labour ..so can any one tell me what is difference between usefull labour and abstract labour?
Ritu Reply
define culture
Bd
hmari ka trik, a khaan paan ka trika, bhasha, our way of living, dressing, dancing, eating, relion, caste, art
Ritu
all these culture
Ritu
there r two type of culture material or non material
Ritu
material like; car ,building , clothing ,tools
Ritu
non material;language ,norms ,sanctions ,folkways
Ritu
Culture is learned behavior that is passed on from one generation to another.
Ritu
Please what are the available job opportunities after studying this course
Naa Reply
firstly , you have to study this .... how much job are available in this course you can imagine .... just put your deep focus in this ....give your enough time to study it...then see Then see how the job comes down to you
Ritu
still , you want to how many jobs in this to read the importance of sociology in this book"principals of sociology by C.N SHANKAR RAW"
Ritu
sociology is good study
marshell Reply
sociology isn't only good study ... this is best subject to live a real humen life..bcz i this we reas about human behavior
Ritu
bcz in this we read about humen behaviour
Ritu
That is a biased statement. 😀
SHIVAM
could you explain how this is biased statment?
Ritu
Whatever I have said.. by observing this subject ........
Ritu
That's common sensical approach not an empirical one.
SHIVAM
sir may be u r right...but if some persons have science.. and they define their subjects.. or someone has geography ..and he define it by observing .. so we can't say that this is their prejudice and biases
Ritu
Thats a bias of course. when you say a subject is best it means it is better tha n all other subjects. Hence, you must analyse other subjects on same parameters
SHIVAM
and then present a conclusion. although Such thesis would not be a part of sociology
SHIVAM
that ryt sir .....
Ritu
I m totally agree with u
Ritu
what symbolic interactionism emphasises
Thembekile Reply
guise.. could anyone tell me from which site someone can get jnu previous year question papers?
Ritu Reply
m.A entrance
Ritu
what is difference between fact and data?
Ritu Reply
I suspect that there are folks you have a good reason for encouraging this kind of confusion..
dipsan
Data is information.  It is objective.  Facts, on the other hand, are often extrapolations of applications or interpretations of data.
dipsan
Data can be very reliable when understood properly.  Facts are reliable less frequently, depending on the level and type of interpretation applied to the data the facts claim to be based on.
dipsan
hmm you r right well thanks
Ritu
it's my pleasure......
dipsan
ask me what ever you want to know I will try my best..!
dipsan
what is the diffrence b/n power and force?
seid
both are different concepts
Ritu
one is Where a person can get any work done by any person on his own wish, even if he does not wish.
Ritu
force is an action on a body or interaction of two bodies.while power is the amount of energy consumed during an over the body
Ritu
force is defined as the rate of change of momentum.... Power refers to the rate at which a force is able to transfer energy................
dipsan
could any one tell me when exams will be organise of2020?
Ritu Reply
may be after lockdown
Sachin
compare and contrast the concerns of the liberal ferminist in the marxist ferminist theory? please can someone explain to me...
johanne Reply
how much I know about it ...liberal feminist means when women thinks that they can change their situation and make equal in the context of man.in their capabilities and qualities! Marxist feminist related to relations of labour and means of production .
Ritu
when it approach when women change their situation only revolution..and it become only option to get equality to man
Ritu
theories of conflict: functionalism and Marxist.
Chano Reply
what is the sociology of education
Sthab Reply
Copied"The sociology of education is the study ofhow public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes. It is mostly concerned with the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, further, adult,and continuing education.
Yolanda
thanks
Sthab
the definition of the interdependence of different parts of society
Solani
sociology or education means lerning about humen behaviour.that why its content is very much dynamic and vast...
Ritu
in sociology of education we learn whole subjects are in society
Ritu
Hey guys im new to this sociology journey how deep can this rabbit hole get ?
Shanel Reply
hie guys I'm new and I wanna know about society and sociology journey?
johanne
compare and contrast the concerns of the liberal ferminist in the marxist ferminist theory? please can someone explain to me....
johanne
tell me what crime is please
onoja Reply
refers to an unlawful act committed to an individual or state and is punishable
Noel
crime.... is a thinking and also we can an action by individual ..which is not acceptable in any way.. and in which society or law gives punishment ..so every thing that is punishable is crime we can relate this in any type of action both materially or emotionally .
Ritu
sorry it send two times by technical error
Ritu
so we can say also that crime is negative action by masses.we can't limited that what is crime and what things is under crime it depends on society what they wants to add in this fact. it's change and move different by society to society .i That the crime in India may not be in America.
Ritu
one thing more you also know that modern time there is Countervailing law ( In which only the loss of a person is met) and the other oppressive law (in which crime is considered against the whole society)
Ritu
for exp.. ( In olden times, love marriage was considered bad and the whole villagers punished against the whole society.
Ritu
In modern time In the oppressive law like if a love marriage is done in today's time, the village or society does not give punishment and there is no constitution either.
Ritu

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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