SCEA for Java EE Study Guide

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The objective of this session is to introduce the subject of software engineering. When you have read this session you will understand what software engineering is and why it is important, know the answers to key questions which provide an introduction to software engineering, understand ethical and professional issues which are important for software engineers.

Introduction

Virtually all countries now depend on complex computer-based systems. More and more products incorporate computers and controlling software in some form. The software in these systems represents a large and increasing proportion of the total system costs. Therefore, producing software in a cost-effective way is essential for the functioning of national and international economies.

Software engineering is an engineering discipline whose goal is the cost-effective development of software systems. Software is abstract and intangible. It is not constrained by materials, governed by physical laws or by manufacturing processes. In some ways, this simplifies software engineering as there are no physical limitations on the potential of software. In other ways, however, this lack of natural constraints means that software can easily become extremely complex and hence very difficult to understand.

Software engineering is still a relatively young discipline. The notion of ‘software engineering’ was first proposed in 1968 at a conference held to discuss what was then called the ‘software crisis’. This software crisis resulted directly from the introduction of powerful, third generation computer hardware. Their power made hitherto unrealisable computer applications a feasible proposition. The resulting software was orders of magnitude larger and more complex than previous software systems.

Early experience in building these systems showed that an informal approach to software development was not good enough. Major projects were sometimes years late. They cost much more than originally predicted, were unreliable, difficult to maintain and performed poorly. Software development was in crisis. Hardware costs were tumbling whilst software costs were rising rapidly. New techniques and methods were needed to control the complexity inherent in large software systems.

These techniques have become part of software engineering and are now widely although not universally used. However, there are still problems in producing complex software which meets user expectations, is delivered on time and to budget. Many software projects still have problems and this has led to some commentators (Pressman, 1997) suggesting that software engineering is in a state of chronic affliction.

As our ability to produce software has increased so too has the complexity of the software systems required. New technologies resulting from the convergence of computers and communication systems place new demands on software engineers. For this reason and because many companies do not apply software engineering techniques effectively, we still have problems. Things are not as bad as the doomsayers suggest but there is clearly room for improvement.

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SCEA for Java EE Study Guide
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37 Pages
2012
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the SCEA for Java EE Study Guide Quiz

Question: Which of the following is the most important item that should be considered when designing an application?

Choices:

Scalability

Maintainability

Reliability

Meeting the needs of the customer

Performance

Question: which item is not an example of things that a state diagram could effectively model?

Choices:

Life could be modeled: birth, puberty, adulthood, death.

A computer system infrastructure.

A banking transaction.

A soccer match could be modeled: start, half time, injury time, end

Question: What is not true about a sequence diagram?

Choices:

It has tow dimensions.

One sequence diagram dimension represents time.

One sequence diagram dimension represents the different objects participating in a sequence of events required for a purpose.

Sequence diagrams are static model views.

Question: Which of the following are nonfunctional requirements?

Choices:

Scalability, availability, extensibility, manageability and security

Performance, reliability, elaboration, transition, use cases and security

Specification, elaboration, construction, transition, use cases and security

Performance, availability, scalability and security

Reliability, availability, scalability, manageability and security

Question: What item is not true about a component?

Choices:

A component represents a modular and deployable system part. It encapsulates an implementation and exposes a set of interfaces.

The component interfaces represent services provided by elements that reside on the component.

A node may be deployed on a component.

A component is shown as a rectangle with two smaller rectangles extending from its left side. A component type has a type name component-type.

Question: What is not true about a collaboration diagram?

Choices:

A collaboration diagram models interactions among objects, and objects interact by invoking messages on each other.

A collaboration diagram groups together the interactions among different objects.

The interactions in a collaboration diagram are listed as alphabetically collated letters that help to trace the sequence of the interactions.

The collaboration diagram helps to identify all the possible interactions that each object has with other objects.

Question: What is true about a use case?

Choices:

It is a complete end-to-end business process that satisfies the needs of a user.

It is a description that represents a complete unit of functionality provided by something as large as a system or as small as a class

It defines the interaction of one or more roles along with their contents, associations, relationships and classes

It is a collection of operations that represents a class or specifies a set of methods that must be implemented by the derived class.

Question: Which of the following is true about the requirements of a banking system?

Choices:

The need for security is a classic example of a functional service level requirement, and a checking account rule is an example of a nonfunctional requirement.

Security and the mandatory checking account both illustrate functional service level requirements.

Neither security nor the mandatory checking account is an example of any kind of requirement, theoretically speaking.

Security is an architectural nonfunctional requirement and the mandatory checking accounts a functional design requirement.

They are both examples of business use cases.

Question: Which item is not true when speaking of a class?

Choices:

A class is a non unique structure

An instance is one computer executable copy of a class, also referred to as an object.

Multiple instances of a particular class can exist in a computer's main memory at any given time.

A class is a structure that defines the attribute data and the methods or functions operate on that data.

Question: What is not true about use cases?

Choices:

There are three types of use cases: essential, real and virtual

A virtual use case describes the user's virtual view of the problem and is technology independent.

A real use case describes the process in terms of its real design and implementation.

Essential use cases are of importance early in the project. Their purpose is to illustrate and document the business process.

Question: Which of the following items is not one of the phases of the Unified Process?

Choices:

Inception

Design

Construction

Transition

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Lakeima Roberts
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