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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Exam PDF eBook: 
Toxicology Gustafson- Biotoxins and Venoms
Download Toxicology Exam PDF eBook
15 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Toxicology Gustafson- Biotoxins and Venoms Exam

Question: 99% of all the snakebites to animals in North America are by coral snakes




Question: Tarantula species native to the United States are not capable of delivering serious envenomation and thus are effectively innocuous. True/ False




Question: Cyanobacteria can cause hepatoxicity via ingestion of ____________ and neurotoxicity via ingestion of _____________.


microcystin/nodularin , anatoxin

anatoxin, microcystin/nodularin

Question: Coral snakes have short fixed , nonhinged ,front fangs that are partially membrane covered but 60% of bites do not result in venom delivery. True/ False




Question: Which of the following is false reagrding Bufo toad toxicity?


Onset of clinical signs can be rapid and death can occur within 15 minutes .

The cardiac glycosides bind and inhibit Na /K ATPase resulting in a depressed electrical conduction

Mucous membranes appear pale and tacky .

Prognosis is good with most animals with early decontamination and appropriate symptomatic therapy

Majority of animals present with neurologic abnormalities including convulsions, ataxia, nystagmus, stupor and coma.

Question: Coral snake venom is rapidly cleared from the body . True/False




Question: Cathardin toxicosis from blister beetles can cause irritation in the terminal ends of the esophagus, stomach and intestines leading to ulcerative lesions. True /False




Question: Which is false regarding pit vipers?


most bites are by copperheads

venom is delivered by the retractable fangs downward and stabbing forward

Echinocytes greatly increase the likelyhood that victum has been envenomated

Initial clinical sign is usually marked tissue swelling.

Antivenin treatment (CroFabTM) substantially increases the likelihood of survival

Question: How would you identify a female black widow spider?


red , yellow, or orange hourglass on ventral abdomen

the bite causes a "Bulls eye " lesion and systemic deletion of clotting factors (VII,IX, and XII)

within 30 min of bite, expanding area of wound will reach up to 15 cm and rupture with serious discharge

Female black widow spiders only build nests in barns housed by talking pigs named Wilbur.

The nests will be built on ground level since black widows are poor climbers.

Question: Blister beetles cause cathardin toxicosis which occurs when livestock eat ________________



Alfalfa hay

Dead chicken carcasses



Question: Which of the following is false regarding botulism toxin?


Ach release is blocked in the presynaptic neuron resulting in flaccid paralysis

Botulism occurs via ingestion or wound contamination of spores or preformed toxin

Preformed toxin sources are decaying carcasses

For prevention, vaccination against C. botulism with toxoid can prevent clinical disease

Clinical signs include "sawhorse stance", muscle rigidity, erect ears and a reluctance to eat due to "locked jaw"

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Stephanie Redfern
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