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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Test PDF eBook: 
NCE- Human Growth and Develoment
Download NCE Ch 03 Test PDF eBook
100 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the NCE- Human Growth and Develoment Test

Question: According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operations operational thought. The notion suggests


that heavier objects are more difficult for a child to lift

the child is ambidextrous

the child is more cognizant of mass than weight

one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape

Question: ______________ expanded on Piaget's conceptualization of moral development


Erick Erikson

The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotosky

Lawrence Kohlberg

John B. Watson

Question: Freud's stages are psychosexual while Erik Erickson's stages are






Question: Some behavioral scientists have been critical of the Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget's developmental research inasmuch as


he utilized the t test too frequently

he failed to check for type 1 of alpha errors

he worked primarily with minority children

his findings were often derived from observing his own children

Question: The statement, "the ego is dependent on the id" would most likely reflect the work of


Erik Erikson

Sigmund Freud

Jay Haley

Arnold Lazarus, William Perry, and Robert Kegan

Question: The only psychoanalyst who created a developmental theory which encompasses the entire life span was


Erik Erikson

Milton H. Erikson

A. A. Brill

Jean Piaget

Question: In Freudian theory instincts are emphasized. Erik Erikson is an ego psychologist. Ego psychologists


emphasize id processes

refute the concept of the superego

believe in man's powers of reasoning to control behavior

are sometimes known as radical behaviorist

Question: Jean Piaget's theory has four stages. The correct order from stage 1 to stage 4 is


formal operations, concrete operations, preoperations, sensorimotor

formal operations, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations

sensorimotor, peroperations, concrete operations, formal operations

concrete operations, sensorimotor, preoperations, formal operations

Question: A child masters conservation in the Piagetian stage known as


formal operations-12 years and older

concrete operations- ages 7 to 11

preoperations- ages 2 to 7

sensorimotor intelligence - birth to 2 years

Question: A tall skinny pitcher of water is emptied into a small sqautty pitcher. A child indicates that she feels the small has less water. The child has not yet mastered


sympbolic schema


androgynous psychosocial issues

trust versus mistrust

Question: In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refers to


volume or mass

defenses of the ego

the sensorimotor intelligence stage

a specific psychosocial stage of life

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