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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Exam PDF eBook: 
Dr Dowers Endocrinology
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30 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Dr Dowers Endocrinology Exam

Question: 7yr old female intact, german shepherd. PU/PD glucosuria . CBC shows stress leukogram. BioChem panel normal. Urine culture was neg . Abdominal radiograph did not show any significant findings. What is a possible diagnosis?


Diabetes Mellitus

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Portosystemic shunt


Fanconi's syndrome

Question: 7yr old female intact, german shepherd. PU/PD CBC- mild anemia; BioChem panel shows azotemia. Urine culture was + . Abdominal radiograph did not show any significant findings. What is a possible diagnosis?


Diabetes mellitus


Fanconi syndrome

Portosystemic shunt

Central diabetes insipidus

Question: To tell if an animal is truly polydipsic, need to measure the water intake. How much water is too much intake?


>25 ml/kg/day

>50 ml/kg/day

>100 ml/kg/day

>125 ml/kg/day

>150 ml /kg/day

Question: Central Diabetes insipidus (CDI) is defined as partial or complete lack of ADH. True /False




Question: ________________ nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus is common






Question: What diagnostic tool helps rule out if animal is PU/PD?


Urine Culture




Biochem Panel

Question: Which of the following is a specific rule out for osmotic diuresis?


Diabetes Mellitus

Renal Insufficiency

Fanconi's syndrome

Post Obstructive diuresis

All of the above

Question: Tyson weighs 60 pounds and drinks 3 L per day. How much water is the dog consuming on a ml/kg/day basis? Is he polydipsic?


27.5 ml / kg/day ; No

3000 ml/ kg/day ; Yes

3000 ml/ kg/ day ; No

109 ml/kg /day ; No

109 ml/ kg/ day; Yes

Question: Modified water deprivation test is considered a second wave diagnostic test if all first wave diagnostics come out normal. True/ False




Question: 7yr old female intact, german shepherd. PU/PD. Urinalysis shows 1.006 . CBC normal. BioChem panel normal. Urine culture was neg . Abdominal radiograph and ultrasound did not show any significant findings. ACTH stim : normal BA test : Normal . What would doing a modified water deprivation test on this animal be appropriate?




Question: If animal has a low T4 result , then that animal has primary hypothyroidism. True/ False




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