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Photo depicts Earth from space.
This NASA image is a composite of several satellite-based views of Earth. To make the whole-Earth image, NASA scientists combine observations of different parts of the planet. (credit: NASA/GSFC/NOAA/USGS)

Viewed from space, Earth offers no clues about the diversity of life forms that reside there. The first forms of life on Earth are thought to have been microorganisms that existed for billions of years in the ocean before plants and animals appeared. The mammals, birds, and flowers so familiar to us are all relatively recent, originating 130 to 200 million years ago. Humans have inhabited this planet for only the last 2.5 million years, and only in the last 200,000 years have humans started looking like we do today.

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bio exam 3
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Sample Questions from the bio exam 3 Exam

Question: all of the following are needed in a reproductive cloning procedure except:


a sperm cell

a donor diploid cell

an empty egg cell

a surrogate mother

all of the above

Question: what is the definition of biotechnology?


the production of genetically identical organisms, cells or DNA molecules

the study of living things

the study of interactions between organisms and their enviroment

the modification of organisms, cells and their molecules for practical benefits

Question: Which statement best describes the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning?


therapeutic cloning is used to produce stem cells for individuals which a medical condition while reproductive cloning is used to produce organisms identical to what they were cloned from

therapeutic cloning involves producing medications while reproductive cloning is used for in vitro fertilization procedures

there really aren't any differences between therapeutic and reproductive cloning

therapeutic cloning procedures cells that are not genetically identical to what they were taken from while reproductive cloning produces cells that are genetically identical to what they were taken from

Question: in order to be successful, chemotherapy drugs have to stop cell division. The most likely method for this would be to:


denature all the enzymes in the cell so division can't occur

stop cellular respiration so the cancerous cells don't have energy

interfere with the function of the spindle fibers so the chromosomes can't seperate

speed up the cell cycle in the canceerous

Question: Embryonic stem cells (ESC's) from research can come from any of the following sources except


therapeutic cloning (SCNT)

in vitro fertilization (TVF)

terminated pregnancies

ESC's can come from any of these sources

Question: Which of the following is not a step of translation?






Question: Blood cells and muscle cells make different proteins because:


blood cells contain only the genes for making blood cell proteins and muscle cells only contain mucsle protein genes

they are not yet differentiated

all cells of an organism have the same genes, and express all of them

even though both have the same genes, they express different genes

Question: A DNA sample from an organism reveals that it is composed of 30% thymine. What percentage of guanine does this organism have?






Question: a point mutation will always cause:


nucleotides to be removed from the DNA

one nucleotide to be changed in the DNA

a change to the amino acid

extra nucleotides to be added to the DNA

Question: Typical causes of mutations include:



spontaneous change

chemical toxins

all of these

Question: What is a clone?


an exact genetic copy of an organism

a cell that can take up plasmids

an offspring produced by test-tube fertilization

a segment of DNA of specific length

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