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Rem sleep behavior disorder (rbd)

REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)    occurs when the muscle paralysis associated with the REM sleep phase does not occur. Individuals who suffer from RBD have high levels of physical activity during REM sleep, especially during disturbing dreams. These behaviors vary widely, but they can include kicking, punching, scratching, yelling, and behaving like an animal that has been frightened or attacked. People who suffer from this disorder can injure themselves or their sleeping partners when engaging in these behaviors. Furthermore, these types of behaviors ultimately disrupt sleep, although affected individuals have no memories that these behaviors have occurred (Arnulf, 2012).

This disorder is associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. In fact, this relationship is so robust that some view the presence of RBD as a potential aid in the diagnosis and treatment of a number of neurodegenerative diseases (Ferini-Strambi, 2011). Clonazepam, an anti-anxiety medication with sedative properties, is most often used to treat RBD. It is administered alone or in conjunction with doses of melatonin (the hormone secreted by the pineal gland). As part of treatment, the sleeping environment is often modified to make it a safer place for those suffering from RBD (Zangini, Calandra-Buonaura, Grimaldi,&Cortelli, 2011).

Other parasomnias

A person with restless leg syndrome    has uncomfortable sensations in the legs during periods of inactivity or when trying to fall asleep. This discomfort is relieved by deliberately moving the legs, which, not surprisingly, contributes to difficulty in falling or staying asleep. Restless leg syndrome is quite common and has been associated with a number of other medical diagnoses, such as chronic kidney disease and diabetes (Mahowald&Schenck, 2000). There are a variety of drugs that treat restless leg syndrome: benzodiazepines, opiates, and anticonvulsants (Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation, n.d.).

Night terrors result in a sense of panic in the sufferer and are often accompanied by screams and attempts to escape from the immediate environment (Mahowald&Schenck, 2000). Although individuals suffering from night terrors appear to be awake, they generally have no memories of the events that occurred, and attempts to console them are ineffective. Typically, individuals suffering from night terrors will fall back asleep again within a short time. Night terrors apparently occur during the NREM phase of sleep (Provini, Tinuper, Bisulli,&Lagaresi, 2011)Generally, treatment for night terrors is unnecessary unless there is some underlying medical or psychological condition that is contributing to the night terrors (Mayo Clinic, n.d.).

Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea is defined by episodes during which a sleeper’s breathing stops. These episodes can last 10–20 seconds or longer and often are associated with brief periods of arousal. While individuals suffering from sleep apnea may not be aware of these repeated disruptions in sleep, they do experience increased levels of fatigue. Many individuals diagnosed with sleep apnea first seek treatment because their sleeping partners indicate that they snore loudly and/or stop breathing for extended periods of time while sleeping (Henry&Rosenthal, 2013). Sleep apnea is much more common in overweight people and is often associated with loud snoring. Surprisingly, sleep apnea may exacerbate cardiovascular disease (Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Campos-Rodriguez,&Barbé, 2012). While sleep apnea is less common in thin people, anyone, regardless of their weight, who snores loudly or gasps for air while sleeping, should be checked for sleep apnea.

Questions & Answers

what subject matter of psy
muhammad Reply
do you think that Candace benefited or suffered as a result of consistently being passed on to the next grade?
Cincona Reply
what is Fixed interval
Paradise Reply
Which of the following is not true about physical punishment of children
Chris Reply
who is the writer of this book
Shiv Reply
I think people will not be skeptical but will be interested to know about it
Kabir Reply
Does anyone else here think that God is a made-up concept, developed by different cultures as a coping mechanism with the reality of nothingness and for reproduction? (just my thoughts)
Raman
idk if its a made up concept..or there's actually a super entity in the outer space controlling every thing..but I think it's the concept of God is a necessity for the being of righteous communities. The desire for heaven and the fear of hell is the only thing that keeps many people on the good path
Junaid
(Just my thoughts)
Junaid
Do anyone think that the only way to improve a country 😂 is by having a good education so that people can stand by their selves, and hopefully will help the country.
Genlaiza
Yes . But they aslo need a good economical foundation.
sayantan
I think the concept of God it is not made-up concept but it is made by the feelings of the people because God is nature and from the fact that we feel nature since i is the one who provides for all of us so as a sign of gratitude for everything that we are having from this world we made it as a God
Genlaiza
sure
Prince
That's something Genlaiza....reminds me a quote of Ramana Maharshi .."What is God? The question itself contains the answer: What is,(is) God."
Junaid
thank you very much by the way I am still in high school I'm just having an advance reading
Genlaiza
Good for you :)
Junaid
Any suggestions?
Junaid
if u know what is God or who is ..I think vedanta , one of the oldest treatise related to God . According to yajur veda -God Supreme or Supreme Spirit has no ‘Pratima’ (idol) or material shape. He cannot be seen directly by anyone. He pervades all beings and all directions. Thus,   Idolatry doe
sayantan
I think god is cannot be known because my father said god is nature so can a nature be known or studied? god is not something that should know but it is be feelled and believed and I don't think god is about superiority
Genlaiza
I am just saying..
Genlaiza
yup ..you aslo define God as a creator of our universe because when you goes deep though nature or universe you see that everything is organize with a precise mathematical design.. so you aslo say that if u understand the rhythm of our universe or nature then perhaps you understand what God says .
sayantan
In my thought god is a mind of our soul.bcoz when we see everything that what a manner we can understand, how to treat or how to realize,how to respect and so on...you know the only work of God is to realize who we are ,and what was the problem or anything behind us ..if it is the loss or soul pain
rajy
what causes the brain to produce melatonin
Kali Reply
melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland in the brain. it is a hormone that helps your body prepare for sleep and is activated at night when the CNS 'turns on' the pineal to actively produce melatonin. it remain mostly 'inactive' in the day time.
paschal
why do people sleep in the day time
John
melatonin acts as a 'time cue' anticipating sleep. And since it influences our sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythm (or body-clock), it comes to play when you didnt get enough sleep time or when you are fatigued. Hence, it activation during the day. Remember, the CNS is the 'commander' of your body
paschal
sleeping in the day time, can it be a habit?
John
anything u do very often will eventually become a habit. but u must understand that peoples' biosystem can be different - what can be a habit in mr A might be a hormonal imbalance in mr B. so, if u suddenly find yourself sleeping often in the daytime (when u are not working nightshifts) see a doctor
paschal
I want to study psychology but I don't know how to start it.
John
yes
Prince
Naturally, John, we all use psychology in our daily interactions. if you want to study it professionally, then you have to attend an educational institution or take an online course. you can do it.
paschal
yes I can do it
Prince
There are many resources on the internet that can aid you in your endeavour.
paschal
whats the topic? be i just downloaded this app and trying to figure it out.
Roxanna Reply
is this your begining in psychology ?
KhaLid
This is my beginning in psychology
Junaid
I am new to psychology
Dom
what are u pursuing ba psychology or applied psychology
Sajan
I am new here any friend please?
Teben Reply
I'm new too, hello friend
Mark
i am also new here
Maliha
i'm new three😂
Mohammad
i'm new three😂
Mohammad
Me too....How you all doing?
Junaid
I good thank you, just in a government lockdown, and now with no job bit searching for a new one in something on the global digital platform would be nice a start to a new job career, from turning a hobby into a new career.
Mark
I am retrospectively new here 😂😂😂😂 Hey everyone !
KhaLid
hi
sayali
Hi Im new for this chat!
Shyam
Let me introduce myself
Shyam
That's great *MARK* I'm also bit searching for a job on digital marketing
Shyam
yes
Bikram
if anyone needs any concepts about psychology lemme know !
KhaLid
I am new new here too
Dom
certainly Salma .....
KhaLid
go ahead ... how can I help you?
KhaLid
Hi
Aliena
hi
Justina
Hello everyone. How u guys hanging?
paschal
I have been struggling
Bosie
What have u been struggling with?
paschal
finding a way to get a laptop to do my work on.
Bosie
Where are you from?
paschal
hi..i need help with my assignment..i need 3 written role plays and each role play i need to use 2 different counseling therapies.
Ashital Reply
why they didn't investigate another person?
NFAK Reply
?
Leuka
?
Cary
be aware your life and others life's It is humanity
muhammad
what is the topic?
paschal
why do people say that girls are more emotional than boys
Soohie Reply
***goodtherapy.org/blog/do-boys-and-girls-express-emotions-differently-1226122?fbclid=IwAR1qdt09vHmDoMHzkoFP8MBRr8nocv9P_I3zluC4rpQ7yo0wO7wVyFwQiB4
Sarah
thanks
NishaOfficial
no problem
Sarah
Wilhem Wundt's introspection technique with his own strict rules for the experiment. Is the technique able to recognize symptoms of mental illnesses, like schizophrenia or dementia for example, or is it only applicable to a certain degree? If so, what is the extent of this technique he used?
Shilla Reply
Yes
Mehmood
Oh, so, yes it can recognize mental illness symptoms?
Shilla
Pls I want to study psychology in higher education but am a bit confused between educational psychology and social psychology which is better?
Odey
confused about what these are two particular fields of psychology tell me odey in which you are interested ?
KhaLid
***differencebetween.com/difference-between-psychology-and-vs-social-psychology/
Sarah
psychology deals with mental processes and behavior in an individual while social psychology deals with society and their influence on an individual
Sarah
what about cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience?
Mehmood
Am interested studying social psychology bt I dnt knw the one that is better
Odey
I can't see the full message u want to know about cognitive psychology and cognitive what was the last part
Sarah
cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience
Mehmood
Cognitive psychology is more focused on information processing and behavior. Cognitive neuroscience studies the underlying biology of information processing and behavior.
Sarah
Cognitive neuroscience overlaps with cognitive psychology, and focuses on the neural substrates of mental processes and their behavioral manifestations.
Sarah
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), cognitive psychology is the “study of higher mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking.” As a scientific study of mind and mental functioning, the core focus of modern cognitive psych
Sarah
***bestpsychologydegrees.com/faq/what-is-cognitive-psychology/
Sarah
I'm currently in college studying for my BA in Science of Psychology which is General Psychology
Sarah
thanks Sarah. can a psychologist be a cognitive neuroscientist? or this domain is out of reach from psychologist s
Mehmood
Odey have u looked into the different types of social psychology and what each of them are?
Sarah
cognitive neuroscientists all study psychology biology neurologist chemistry and philosophy. they typically have training in at least one of these disciplines and can work in a variety of roles, from conducting brain research to helping therapy clients overcome mental illness.
Sarah
so I would say yes a psychologist can be a neuroscientist after furthering their education more
Sarah
Pls Sarah, if u can help me wit any material on the difference I will rili appreciate, we find it difficult to get good psychology material in my country
Odey
yes Sarah. it seems it is an interdisciplinary field of study. I don't know whether most of th universities will provide education in cognitive neuroscience. it seems so expensive and laborious to me. what do you think
Mehmood
yes Sarah. it seems it is an interdisciplinary field of study. I don't know whether most of th universities will provide education in cognitive neuroscience. it seems so expensive and laborious to me. what do you think
Mehmood
***careersinpsychology.org/becoming-a-cognitive-neuroscientist
Sarah
Odey here is a link on social psychology and their different types for you to explore ***bestselling.com/research-areas-in-social-psychology-2795913
Sarah
nobody wants to help answer and explain the question I had? Besides a simple yes? And you guys went on with a different discussion here -_- Thank you very much
Shilla
reask your question again and I'm sorry
Sarah
Wilhem Wundt's introspection technique with his own strict rules for the experiment. Is the technique able to recognize symptoms of mental illnesses, like schizophrenia or dementia for example, or is it only applicable to a certain degree? If so, what is the extent of this technique he used?
Shilla
It's okay, forgiven 😂
Shilla
I have to look in my text for that I havent gotten there yet
Sarah
thank you
Sarah
I'm still looking i hope someone else can help. Forgive me?
Sarah
hey guys can anybody provide me.notes regarding indian psychology and how it changes according to time
nitesh
you mean history of indian psychology?
PUSHPITA
yes would be interesting... as individual psychology is influenced by socialization too... my opinion regards
Neelkanth
What explanation will you give to a student  who has challenges with retrieving information from memory? 
Yaa Reply
Memories of events or items tend to be recalled in the same order in which they were experienced, so by thinking through a list or series of events.
Raluca
I personally study using music so when I need to remember what I'm doing I have to use the same playlist
Sarah
Ohk thanks
Yaa
you're welc5
Sarah
welcome
Sarah
How is everyone doing
Lotegeluaki Reply
good.
Cathleen
good
Flora
I didn't know it had this feature. Good, thanks for asking.
Cheriyan
getting better thanks ... how are you ?
Jim
Oh hey
Nikki
Hmm
Nikki
Doing well, thank you!
Amanda
could someone talk about the 4th level of maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramid. thanks
Neelkanth
@Neelkanth , The fourth level depicts self worth. It basically means pride enters one's life later on. Honestly, I don't confirm to the hierarchy much.
Zoya
An example, this a drastic example, : Making an 11 year old kid that has gone through basic conditioning beg for his/her life may be easy when you put a gun to their head.
Zoya
However, when you do so to a man in his late 30's to 40's who has also gone through the same conditioning in his childhood, it may be more difficult to make him beg. This is because he has earned a reputation. Went up the hierarchy
Zoya
is there anyone L&D professional here
Abhishek
Abhishek yes go ahead !
KhaLid
Great
Abhishek

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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