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Cardiovascular disorders

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and blood circulation system. For many years, disorders that involve the cardiovascular system—known as cardiovascular disorders    —have been a major focal point in the study of psychophysiological disorders because of the cardiovascular system’s centrality in the stress response (Everly&Lating, 2002). Heart disease is one such condition. Each year, heart disease causes approximately one in three deaths in the United States, and it is the leading cause of death in the developed world (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011; Shapiro, 2005).

The symptoms of heart disease vary somewhat depending on the specific kind of heart disease one has, but they generally involve angina—chest pains or discomfort that occur when the heart does not receive enough blood (Office on Women’s Health, 2009). The pain often feels like the chest is being pressed or squeezed; burning sensations in the chest and shortness of breath are also commonly reported. Such pain and discomfort can spread to the arms, neck, jaws, stomach (as nausea), and back (American Heart Association [AHA], 2012a) ( [link] ).

A figure showing outlines of the male and female bodies indicates common heart attack symptoms for each sex. For males, these include lightheadedness, perspiration, chest pain and pressure, stomach pain, and shortness of breath. For females, these include dizziness, anxiety, back and neck pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting.
Males and females often experience different symptoms of a heart attack.

A major risk factor for heart disease is hypertension    , which is high blood pressure. Hypertension forces a person’s heart to pump harder, thus putting more physical strain on the heart. If left unchecked, hypertension can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or heart failure; it can also lead to kidney failure and blindness. Hypertension is a serious cardiovascular disorder, and it is sometimes called the silent killer because it has no symptoms—one who has high blood pressure may not even be aware of it (AHA, 2012b).

Many risk factors contributing to cardiovascular disorders have been identified. These risk factors include social determinants such as aging, income, education, and employment status, as well as behavioral risk factors that include unhealthy diet, tobacco use, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol consumption; obesity and diabetes are additional risk factors (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013).

Over the past few decades, there has been much greater recognition and awareness of the importance of stress and other psychological factors in cardiovascular health (Nusair, Al-dadah,&Kumar, 2012). Indeed, exposure to stressors of many kinds has also been linked to cardiovascular problems; in the case of hypertension, some of these stressors include job strain (Trudel, Brisson,&Milot, 2010), natural disasters (Saito, Kim, Maekawa, Ikeda,&Yokoyama, 1997), marital conflict (Nealey-Moore, Smith, Uchino, Hawkins,&Olson-Cerny, 2007), and exposure to high traffic noise levels at one’s home (de Kluizenaar, Gansevoort, Miedema,&de Jong, 2007). Perceived discrimination appears to be associated with hypertension among African Americans (Sims et al., 2012). In addition, laboratory-based stress tasks, such as performing mental arithmetic under time pressure, immersing one’s hand into ice water (known as the cold pressor test), mirror tracing, and public speaking have all been shown to elevate blood pressure (Phillips, 2011).

Questions & Answers

what is Type Approach?
Tejaswi Reply
psychology kya hai
Ranjita
what is psychology
Ranjita
psychology is the science of consciousness or it's the study of human behaviour.
Baby
it's both
Shannon
whats is that?
parisa
it's about to know your mental illness or person suffuring from any disorders
JIGNA
Hello who is wilhelm wundt
the father of psychology
Shannon
He is all over CHAPTER 1..he did a lot of things.. he distinguished Psychology from philosophy and made it a science .
Michelle
wat is a packing space
Arubaku
who is the father of clinical psychology
Sahni
who is the father of counseling psychology
Sahni
Frank Parson
olewunne
Carl Rogers is the father counseling psychology
olewunne
what does that mean
Cameron Reply
Hello...what does what mean?
Michelle
types of research used
omer Reply
types of research used in today's society
omer
what is honesty
Namwanje Reply
being able to state things just how they're, especially if the only source of facts is one's self.
queefburgler
Healthcare professionals often work in rotating shifts. Why is this problematic? What can be done to deal with potential problems?
Anna Reply
The core problem is the absence Good governance system
Waaya
ONLY BUDGET CONSUMING RATHER THAN WORKING GOOD HEALTH SERVICES FOR COMMUNITY BY LEADERS
Waaya
NO REALITY BUT THERE ARE FALSE BASED REALITY
Waaya
There isn't enough information to give a true response. However, I do agree with Waaya with one thing... and that's everything begins, rises, and falls with Leadership. A proper governance system is key in everyhing from the Macro, to the Micro alike. Without Governance, there is no order, etc.
Jonah
the rotating shifts interwine with their real life problems , causing frequent arguments within a family and could lead to mental illness or a operation between the parents
omer
*seperation
omer
why is stress chronic?
Abhimanyu Reply
working conditions at work today
Namwanje Reply
working conditions at work
Namwanje
I work in Afghanistan. Work conditions are interesting. 😊
Jonah
what's it like where you work?
Jonah
and that's crazy jonah. stay safe e out there
queefburgler
thanks young King. Will do. what's goin on out there in you guy's parts of the world?
Jonah
who gets anxiety disorders and how common are they?
Karen Reply
I have generalized anxiety and I've had it for almost 12 years
Harley
I've had it for idk how long but I finally went and got diagnosed 3 years ago. it's pretty common actually
Shannon
I have anxiety with secondary depression, basically meaning my anxiety spirals into depression and depressive thoughts
Shannon
depression always start with anxiety......after some year when we are unable to tackle the anxiety....the anxiety converted into depression...b
Sahni
becoz in anxiety a person always unable to taking decision and adjustment with situation et all
Sahni
anxiety big ........ structure is as depression after some times years
Sahni
anxiety is nothing but worries and fear.. it appears as and when a person is scarf of somethg n think about fear more than usal
JIGNA
I suffer with anxiety and depression and let me tell you anxiety takes over, it's hard to control
Zoe
true. you got to set premeditated thoughts for anxiety. like when it hits there has to be a counter thought otherwise you'll be all over the place
queefburgler
to control anxiety do what you love the most.. if you like music go for it. divert your mind. stay happy. do meditation it helps to control
JIGNA
I agree with everything everyone is exceptional experiences. How ever anxiety, fear,and depression are all. States of the mind. We all have an innermost domination over any psychosis.
Leonard
Leonard so are you saying people choose to have these disorders?
Tru
brain works very logical in anxiety to beat that u have to be a good idealist ...
ecstasy
Not entirely. If one isn't aware of the source or the reason for the experience as a whole. Then We as humanly as possible often misunderstand the experience its self. According to our own individual mental capabilities. A sound mind must be superior to all consciousness.
Leonard
Therefore submitted internal peace. Must be achieved.
Leonard
Do you mind if we begin a conversation?
Frank Reply
Not at all, how are you?
Shannon
abt what?
zaynab
I'm totally fine. What about you?
Frank
I'm good, just been studying.
Shannon
Oh,that's pretty good. What have you achieved in your studying?
Frank
what are you guys up to?
queefburgler
I just wanted to have a conversation.
Frank
hitting the books😁👋😂..have a great day everyone 🤗
Michelle
you too Michelle. currently I'm writing a lab report so you could say I'm studying too
queefburgler
Kind of like that. We are having a wonderful day, dude.
Frank
Where are you guys all from?
Frank
I stay in Dubai but originally from Somalia, east Africa
queefburgler
I kind of wanna go to the US after my bachelor's, kinda dont since you guys have that giant orange cheeto thing up in the oval office
queefburgler
But what are you working on?
Frank
currently? I'm doing an organic identification lab report (chemistry)
queefburgler
Unfortunately, i'm really bad at chemistry. Why do you like that? Is there anything that forces you to practice it more and more?
Frank
I'm going to work and then writing a paper for English...we got this...💪😃👍
Michelle
Hi! I'm french
Naomi
I'm from the US, And I wanna leave just because of the orange Cheeto dude
Marco
Oh,Bonjour. I know some words in french.
Frank
Can you help me master that language?
Frank
I'm from Texas currently attending hcc majoring psychology.
Pakayla
and lol Queef.. "the giant orange Cheeto..."
Pakayla
What's the difference between 9/11 and a cow?
Marco
the cow doesnt fly through skyscrapers?
queefburgler
You can't milk a cow for 18 years
Marco
solid.
queefburgler
hi can u eleborate it further?
LEARN Reply
can I get an explanation on the second requirement which was the use of repeatable stimuli?
Daniel Reply
what is psyche
EVANS Reply
psyche is the study of man, man as a being living in the over-world change, responding to thingsand events and other people.
ayman
bhvior n cogntnz....
Hunny
thnkng ptrnz
Hunny
psychology is the study of behavior and mental process
Arooj
something described in the state of a minds being
Carlnisha
That's true
Arooj
YES
ABIOLA
aoa arooj from whr u blong
Hunny
hi
Chandrakant
types of psychology
Clinton
is everyone here belongs to psychology related fields🤔
zaynab
Yes I am
Becca
yea
Odey
yes
JIGNA
behavioural psychology clinical psychology organisational psychology abnormal psychology counselling industrial psychology criminal psychology these all are types of psychology
JIGNA
is any one psychology student ?
JIGNA
i am a psych grad
Gel
Vague to the extent that it sounds like a rhetorical question
keenu
if you want to know the literal meaning of the word, look up Google. Or do provide more info so someone other than you could understand the word in the context that you've come across
keenu
Keenu, what are you talking about?
Becca
Hello I'm anis from Malaysia
Anis
I am strj
Satra
hi
Fred
hello Satra Joy
Fred
Hello
Satra
hey guys
Aditya
welcome everybody
ayman
u 2
Hunny
am in too
Pauline
Hello
Olukunle
Hello
Dungrani
Tell me some facts about developmental psychlogy
Hasham
what is educational psychology? tell me?
Sonai
psyche was a greek goddess
Leah
What does psyche means? soul
Louisiana Reply
psychology= scientific study of the mind and behavior
Louisiana
Associated to outside stimuli or internal.
Rob
she is a goddess
Elizabeth
it is the study of human nature. it is the study of man, man as a being living in an over-changing world, responding to things and events and other people.
ayman
plz sujeest a book.psychological foundetion of education.
Sonai
Cognition is more about knowing. Learning, for instance, changes or at least has some effect on cognitive style. And Constructivism is more of a method or way to know and learn. This is the way I see these concepts. If you may please, tell me, have I got them correct?
Vijay Reply
you have to know the rules of life, follow the scientist and their theories. with that you can measure the truth by yourself. take care of you brother
Will
somebody hv any material related to CBT
Hunny
if hv kindly shr me plz
Hunny
you have everything on internet
Will
i want to understand by dscsn
Hunny

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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