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Cardiovascular disorders

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and blood circulation system. For many years, disorders that involve the cardiovascular system—known as cardiovascular disorders    —have been a major focal point in the study of psychophysiological disorders because of the cardiovascular system’s centrality in the stress response (Everly&Lating, 2002). Heart disease is one such condition. Each year, heart disease causes approximately one in three deaths in the United States, and it is the leading cause of death in the developed world (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011; Shapiro, 2005).

The symptoms of heart disease vary somewhat depending on the specific kind of heart disease one has, but they generally involve angina—chest pains or discomfort that occur when the heart does not receive enough blood (Office on Women’s Health, 2009). The pain often feels like the chest is being pressed or squeezed; burning sensations in the chest and shortness of breath are also commonly reported. Such pain and discomfort can spread to the arms, neck, jaws, stomach (as nausea), and back (American Heart Association [AHA], 2012a) ( [link] ).

A figure showing outlines of the male and female bodies indicates common heart attack symptoms for each sex. For males, these include lightheadedness, perspiration, chest pain and pressure, stomach pain, and shortness of breath. For females, these include dizziness, anxiety, back and neck pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting.
Males and females often experience different symptoms of a heart attack.

A major risk factor for heart disease is hypertension    , which is high blood pressure. Hypertension forces a person’s heart to pump harder, thus putting more physical strain on the heart. If left unchecked, hypertension can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or heart failure; it can also lead to kidney failure and blindness. Hypertension is a serious cardiovascular disorder, and it is sometimes called the silent killer because it has no symptoms—one who has high blood pressure may not even be aware of it (AHA, 2012b).

Many risk factors contributing to cardiovascular disorders have been identified. These risk factors include social determinants such as aging, income, education, and employment status, as well as behavioral risk factors that include unhealthy diet, tobacco use, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol consumption; obesity and diabetes are additional risk factors (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013).

Over the past few decades, there has been much greater recognition and awareness of the importance of stress and other psychological factors in cardiovascular health (Nusair, Al-dadah,&Kumar, 2012). Indeed, exposure to stressors of many kinds has also been linked to cardiovascular problems; in the case of hypertension, some of these stressors include job strain (Trudel, Brisson,&Milot, 2010), natural disasters (Saito, Kim, Maekawa, Ikeda,&Yokoyama, 1997), marital conflict (Nealey-Moore, Smith, Uchino, Hawkins,&Olson-Cerny, 2007), and exposure to high traffic noise levels at one’s home (de Kluizenaar, Gansevoort, Miedema,&de Jong, 2007). Perceived discrimination appears to be associated with hypertension among African Americans (Sims et al., 2012). In addition, laboratory-based stress tasks, such as performing mental arithmetic under time pressure, immersing one’s hand into ice water (known as the cold pressor test), mirror tracing, and public speaking have all been shown to elevate blood pressure (Phillips, 2011).

Questions & Answers

how to learn psychology easily?
Fatima Reply
Read and understand a topic per day
madhuri
First pick and choose the terms that you are interested in then put them together
Jobin
buy mogan and king book( introduction to psychology) availabile on amazon. introduction to psychology.
Deepak
and start from the basic
Deepak
How possible to understand a person's mind certainly
Palash Reply
not possible
amanda
reading their body language and emotions is possible as well as determining their course of action based on their movement's which requires extreme focus because the small clues in their expressions are a quarter of a second so yes I believe a mind can be predicted although understanding differs
David
the madness will go away..
Miasco Reply
Hi
Sonic
Hello
MTH
So what is Psychology? Generally
Sonic
its a philysio thereapy
Yan
oh physio therapy
Sonic
right
Sonic
ha ha just kidding
Yan
the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviour 
Yan
Hi everyone. My question is.. How can manage anger? Any therapy name which use in home to manage anger? If someone needs anger management which tips are helpful?
Madeeha Reply
i think that you can manage your anger buy avoiding things which can cause you to be angry just surround yourself with people who doesn't make you angry
Fiona
One of methods in releasing anger in a not-so chaotic way is to simply find a quite place, scream and cry.
Norina
I think allowing yourself to be angry is helpful
jojesstay
^ in my opinion, while being good, avoids the problem. Either confront anger, or/and overcome it. Think about why you feel angry and should you even be angry to even begin with. Its ok to be angry. Everyone is different and react to different situations with dif. emotions, but dont let anger win u.
Tomi
take anger as your best friend ,make it a source of motivation whenever you become angry don't take it as something others do as they take anger as a different entity rather than accepting it as a mere emotion(though the strongest of them all) , so accept anger as an emotional state and accept it...
Priyank
...when it comes just take a deep breath and say to yourself it's nothing or no one else but me and I can control it and after doing it for a time you'll be able to channel it or redirect it in a way which will help you in a lot of different ways that you can't even think or imagine of......
Priyank
just remember anger is not your enemy but just an emotion it's not different from you, it's you and it's your bestest and strongest friend of them all.
Priyank
when you angry just count 100 to 0
Prashanth
Hi, everyone anyone tells.What is the scope of psycholog?
Madeeha Reply
The subject-matter of our science is, then, the Soul or Mind. The psychologist investigates those phenomena which we call sensations, perceptions, thoughts, volitions, and emotions; he analyzes them, classifies them, and seeks to reduce them to the smallest number of fundamental activities.
Vibhu
hey madeeha this is your answer
Vibhu
its my point of view
Vibhu
What matters is how their mind perceives their spirituality. And every mind will perceive this differently. Remove your own spirituality from the equation when studying psychology in order to view the spirituality of others (or lack thereof) as objectively as possible.
Brent
yeah exactly r8
Vibhu
Okay, thanks
Madeeha
Why is Bipolar and Meth use so prevalent amongst bipolar individuals?
Brett Reply
honestly, they are probably diagnosed as bipolar because of the meth. once gotten off meth for any length of time. the symptoms of bipolar usually leave. but few are honest with dr. n tell they use meth
Barbara
Conversely, it's because they self medicate during depressive episodes and become addicted. Manic highs can also lead to feelings of invincibleness and reckless behavior that impair judgment. People in manic states just want to have the most fun possible and find it hard to say no to drugs, or even
Brent
Seek the drugs out. Once they are out of the manic state, they associate the meth with that state, and when depressed will continue to use meth to attain it.
Brent
what is a pneumatic depressant
Bill Reply
what is the symptoms of DID.
positive Reply
what is symptoms of DID(Multiple personality Disorder)
positive
4. As indicated in this section, Caucasian women from industrialized, Western cultures tend to be at the highest risk for eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Why might this be?
Shamy Reply
Is anyone know the exact cause of mental illnesses like Add, Adhd, Ocd, bipolar etc
Kartikey Reply
mental desorders are caused by many factors
riadh
a chemical imbalance with bipolar which if i remember correctly has somthing to do with OCD as well.....?
jessie
its also has to do with parts of the brain that recieve neurons and some that dont.
Natasha
Natasha...u from which country?
Philip
uSA
Natasha
no i need more explanation
Aminu
ADD, ADHD, bi polar, and OCD. the first 3 are mostly chemical imbalance to the brain. bi polar is a chemical imbalance that has to do with the emotional and creative parts of the brain. its cause from not getting the right amount of something or not enough of something. which is why amphetamines
Natasha
will either make them act more normal and or helps them concentrate. also can make the unleveled level out. desoxyn is methamphentimine hydrochloride its for obese add and adhd
Natasha
may I add that some studies have shown that children who have A.D.H.D were more than likely brought up in single parent family's and Im not a 100% sure of the stat's but believe that some studies have shown as many as 80% of children with A.D.H.D were brought up in a single parent inviroment.
Gavin
And I also remember A.D.H.D in the early days and ideas were put fourth of the cause and one that stood out was spending excessive amounts of time playing computer games as that was still quite anew phenomena at the time.
Gavin
not that anyone mentions that one any more lol.
Gavin
I don't believe there is such a thing as chemical imbalance. More research is needed and it's too easy and simple just to blame certain illnesses on a chemical imbalance. What is chemical imbalance? Maybe we should start there.
David
chemical imbalance is when you either lack a brain chemical such as seritonin, dopamine ex.
Natasha
gavin true to that. our enviroment is a big factor in our chemicals. when were happy because of something our bodies produce more dopamine
Natasha
for example. single parent families are stressful which studies have shown cause more damage then we think or relize including brain chemistry
Natasha
lol duh read a book every now an den u won't bee sow retar'ed. geez some people I swair jus aint gots no cents. ya knaw what eye sayin... lol
Brett
ask reinfield from dracula he suffers from psychotic ideation...lol
Rodney
what are the psychological effects of being a patient
Gloria Reply
why is the Synapse so important to biopsychologists
Susan Reply
I dnt know
Sam
because its very important
Deepak
Because that's where the exchange of information takes place which causes reactions in us and so biopsychologists need to study the info transmitted in order to study the reaction to explain a mental process/behaviour
Tina
synapse occurs as part of the brain activity. This is where everything seems to happen. Just imagine this synapse is like firing information, your feelings, and stuff
Ysa
so can i assume that if there is action potential in the pre synaptic cell but the neurotransmitter does not diffuse into the post synaptic cell that this would lead to some sort of mental dysfunction?
Susan
Or the opposite, too much neurotransmitter
George
how long does it takes to stabilize your sleeping hours?
Gabby Reply
15 minutes.
Philip
90 mnit +
Khadim
usually 24 hrs for me
Goof
30mins to 1hr
Joshua
😉
Sarfaraj
30 minutes
Bill
why do we get depression
meghna Reply
how to be a neuropsychologist?
mukhtar Reply
wo Kya hota h?
Gayatri
I speak English sorry... If you can translate: I suggest studying anatomy if you are still in high school. You will need a master degree. So about ten years of college.
Jen
Pay close attention to psychology as well. Biology is a must.
Jen
hmm
Gayatri

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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