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The DSM-5 also provides information about comorbidity    ; the co-occurrence of two disorders. For example, the DSM-5 mentions that 41% of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) also meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder ( [link] ). Drug use is highly comorbid with other mental illnesses; 6 out of 10 people who have a substance use disorder also suffer from another form of mental illness (National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA], 2007).

A Venn-diagram shows two overlapping circles. One circle is titled “Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder” and the other is titled “Major Depressive Disorder.” The area in which these two circles overlap includes forty-one percent of each circle. This area is titled “Comorbidity 41%.”
Obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder frequently occur in the same person.

The DSM has changed considerably in the half-century since it was originally published. The first two editions of the DSM, for example, listed homosexuality as a disorder; however, in 1973, the APA voted to remove it from the manual (Silverstein, 2009). Additionally, beginning with the DSM-III in 1980, mental disorders have been described in much greater detail, and the number of diagnosable conditions has grown steadily, as has the size of the manual itself. DSM-I included 106 diagnoses and was 130 total pages, whereas DSM-III included more than 2 times as many diagnoses (265) and was nearly seven times its size (886 total pages) (Mayes&Horowitz, 2005). Although DSM-5 is longer than DSM-IV, the volume includes only 237 disorders, a decrease from the 297 disorders that were listed in DSM-IV. The latest edition, DSM-5, includes revisions in the organization and naming of categories and in the diagnostic criteria for various disorders (Regier, Kuhl,&Kupfer, 2012), while emphasizing careful consideration of the importance of gender and cultural difference in the expression of various symptoms (Fisher, 2010).

Some believe that establishing new diagnoses might overpathologize the human condition by turning common human problems into mental illnesses (The Associated Press, 2013). Indeed, the finding that nearly half of all Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM disorder at some point in their life (Kessler et al., 2005) likely fuels much of this skepticism. The DSM-5 is also criticized on the grounds that its diagnostic criteria have been loosened, thereby threatening to “turn our current diagnostic inflation into diagnostic hyperinflation” (Frances, 2012, para. 22). For example, DSM-IV specified that the symptoms of major depressive disorder must not be attributable to normal bereavement (loss of a loved one). The DSM-5, however, has removed this bereavement exclusion, essentially meaning that grief and sadness after a loved one’s death can constitute major depressive disorder.

The international classification of diseases

A second classification system, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)    , is also widely recognized. Published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the ICD was developed in Europe shortly after World War II and, like the DSM, has been revised several times. The categories of psychological disorders in both the DSM and ICD are similar, as are the criteria for specific disorders; however, some differences exist. Although the ICD is used for clinical purposes, this tool is also used to examine the general health of populations and to monitor the prevalence of diseases and other health problems internationally (WHO, 2013). The ICD is in its 10th edition (ICD-10); however, efforts are now underway to develop a new edition (ICD-11) that, in conjunction with the changes in DSM-5, will help harmonize the two classification systems as much as possible (APA, 2013).

A study that compared the use of the two classification systems found that worldwide the ICD is more frequently used for clinical diagnosis, whereas the DSM is more valued for research (Mezzich, 2002). Most research findings concerning the etiology and treatment of psychological disorders are based on criteria set forth in the DSM (Oltmanns&Castonguay, 2013). The DSM also includes more explicit disorder criteria, along with an extensive and helpful explanatory text (Regier et al., 2012). The DSM is the classification system of choice among U.S. mental health professionals, and this chapter is based on the DSM paradigm.

The compassionate view of psychological disorders

As these disorders are outlined, please bear two things in mind. First, remember that psychological disorders represent extremes of inner experience and behavior. If, while reading about these disorders, you feel that these descriptions begin to personally characterize you, do not worry—this moment of enlightenment probably means nothing more than you are normal. Each of us experiences episodes of sadness, anxiety, and preoccupation with certain thoughts—times when we do not quite feel ourselves. These episodes should not be considered problematic unless the accompanying thoughts and behaviors become extreme and have a disruptive effect on one’s life. Second, understand that people with psychological disorders are far more than just embodiments of their disorders. We do not use terms such as schizophrenics, depressives, or phobics because they are labels that objectify people who suffer from these conditions, thus promoting biased and disparaging assumptions about them. It is important to remember that a psychological disorder is not what a person is ; it is something that a person has —through no fault of his or her own. As is the case with cancer or diabetes, those with psychological disorders suffer debilitating, often painful conditions that are not of their own choosing. These individuals deserve to be viewed and treated with compassion, understanding, and dignity.

Summary

The diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders is essential in studying and treating psychopathology. The classification system used by most U.S. professionals is the DSM-5. The first edition of the DSM was published in 1952, and has undergone numerous revisions. The 5th and most recent edition, the DSM-5, was published in 2013. The diagnostic manual includes a total of 237 specific diagnosable disorders, each described in detail, including its symptoms, prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity. Over time, the number of diagnosable conditions listed in the DSM has grown steadily, prompting criticism from some. Nevertheless, the diagnostic criteria in the DSM are more explicit than that of any other system, which makes the DSM system highly desirable for both clinical diagnosis and research.

Questions & Answers

How is everyone doing
Lotegeluaki Reply
good.
Cathleen
good
Flora
I didn't know it had this feature. Good, thanks for asking.
Cheriyan
getting better thanks ... how are you ?
Jim
Oh hey
Nikki
Hmm
Nikki
Doing well, thank you!
Amanda
could someone talk about the 4th level of maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramid. thanks
Neelkanth
@Neelkanth , The fourth level depicts self worth. It basically means pride enters one's life later on. Honestly, I don't confirm to the hierarchy much.
Zoya
An example, this a drastic example, : Making an 11 year old kid that has gone through basic conditioning beg for his/her life may be easy when you put a gun to their head.
Zoya
However, when you do so to a man in his late 30's to 40's who has also gone through the same conditioning in his childhood, it may be more difficult to make him beg. This is because he has earned a reputation. Went up the hierarchy
Zoya
when young children speak in short phrases using verbs and nouns,what it is referred to
Simran Reply
how old? generally that's how kids talk isn't it?
Ezra
especially shy ones
Ezra
slang
Emma
what are the social psychology concepts
MICOT Reply
their are about seven main theories... hope someone could help out with main one and their characteristic
Neelkanth
the self concept, social cognition, attribution theory, social influence, group processes, prejudice and discrimination, interpersonal processes, aggression, attitudes and stereotypes.
Deepa
what is different between psychoanalysis, psychopathology?
salma
when do children form oppions
Tasha Reply
they sit in home and play home toys
muhammad
oppions?
Grace
How to know other person
RAGHAV Reply
what is the nature and scope of biopsychology?
Pratibha Reply
working along with neurologists and doctors closely on the field related to brain and nerves
devesh
How can one over come a sleep debt
Andy Reply
how does an algorithm save you time and energy when solving a problem
john Reply
by directing your attention or misdirecting your attention to a particular topic
frederick
can an obsession with blood and Gore be caused by psychological trauma
Dalton Reply
psychological trauma is a bit of a wild card in the case of long term effects. everyone has their own unique experience and I dont see why the example in your question couldn't be a possible manifestation.
Elle
it would be a bigger possibility of this resulting from trauma if this began after you witnessed a violent or gory event. however this often comes from the amount of violence and gore we are exposed to through social media, the news, and fictional material like books, movies and video games.
andrina
how can the bipolar and mood disorder can prevent?
Shana Reply
Control stress. Stress is a major bipolar trigger. ... If you would control stress you will simply feel good ....if you want to know more about this DM @shana mae
KhaLid
That brings us to the next question.. How do we actually control stress in an effective way?
Looney
well for me mindfulness meditation techniques are very much effective for coping with stress ....
KhaLid
please what are the major things I need to know now in psychology,because I'm a new student of psychology.
Godwin
Godwin if it is your begining in this field you should first clear some concepts like what is psychology it's etymology , structuralism,functionalism , behaviourism and many other perspectives .....
KhaLid
first of all are you studying in psychology or working as a psychologist
muhammad
studying Sir
Godwin
Thank you Sir Khalid.
Godwin
Muhammad Akram Both ☺️
KhaLid
Far too often, you can't control stress just like that on your own . And it will affect you On subconscious level . When it comes to meditation it's something to take seriously and best to be taught by professional.
Kira
I know there are many other ways but I found this one at my own Kira Emerala!
KhaLid
Hi friends
RAJABU
it can't be extracted I'll tell u that much
Shawnte
someone who study psychology here need help ? anyone ?
khawla
Can I ask for tips when you have no motivation and can't focus with your studies?
Jhea
For Shana, I'm sorry, I can't answer your concern at the moment, because I'm still studying about the basics of psychology 😬
Daydreaming
do meditation, start learning few pages initially n understand before moving to another topic
mini
play a sport of your choice for half an hour or listen to your fav music, develop your positive outlook towards life
mini
learn to balance work play study
mini
n health
mini
I'm struggling with BPD cptsd major anxiety disorders and going to college for a psychology degree. trying to maintain motivation is difficult. what can I do?
Sarah
I already meditate take my meds use biofeedback and several other things
Sarah
As a student, it is normal to lose motivation during college life but look at the long term goal. What do you want to achieve at the end? Divide it into small achieveable goals. Once you achieve it, focus on 2nd small goal. Last thing, it's okay to ask for help when needed. We are all in a journey.
mehdi
what's your friend's circle
muhammad
khawla saadouni yes how can I help you ?
KhaLid
Sarah you need CBT it will be effective on that what you are experiencing !!
KhaLid
implicit memory are those type of memories which can be written without any unconsciousness
Aayu Reply
m interested in this research...
Arnav
me too plz I am suffering from depression so v forgetful which has ruined my life
Sins
yes plank youth
Shawnte
0rayers poracles a d majik
Shawnte
cuffed truthfullcreatibeclarity
Shawnte
sins saintly do you need any help regarding how to cope up ?
KhaLid
nebieiluvrue
Shawnte
yes
Shawnte
what do you mean by sensory memory
Aayu Reply
sensory memory simply is an automatic response, not under conscious control. It deals with the input from the senses. 
KhaLid
what is the name of a person who introduction the techniques of factors analysis in intelligence
JobJoy Reply
what is associated with the developmental
JobJoy
lifelong spiritual advice
Zach Reply
Can you define spiritual Zach?
Emely
Are teeth part of our minds?
Kamil
who introduced the technique of factor analysis in intelligence
JobJoy Reply
Spearman's (1904)
Stephen
apart from Spearmans 1904 who again
JobJoy
Howard Garner
Komal

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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