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Historically, heroin has been a major opioid drug of abuse ( [link] ). Heroin can be snorted, smoked, or injected intravenously. Like the stimulants described earlier, the use of heroin is associated with an initial feeling of euphoria followed by periods of agitation. Because heroin is often administered via intravenous injection, users often bear needle track marks on their arms and, like all abusers of intravenous drugs, have an increased risk for contraction of both tuberculosis and HIV.

Photograph A shows various paraphernalia spread out on a black surface.  The items include a tourniquet, three syringes of varying widths, three cotton-balls, a tiny cooking vessel, a condom, a capsule of sterile water, and an alcohol swab. Photograph B shows a hand holding a spoon containing heroin tar above a small candle.
(a) Common paraphernalia for heroin preparation and use are shown here in a needle exchange kit. (b) Heroin is cooked on a spoon over a candle. (credit a: modification of work by Todd Huffman)

Aside from their utility as analgesic drugs, opioid-like compounds are often found in cough suppressants, anti-nausea, and anti-diarrhea medications. Given that withdrawal from a drug often involves an experience opposite to the effect of the drug, it should be no surprise that opioid withdrawal resembles a severe case of the flu. While opioid withdrawal can be extremely unpleasant, it is not life-threatening (Julien, 2005). Still, people experiencing opioid withdrawal may be given methadone to make withdrawal from the drug less difficult. Methadone is a synthetic opioid that is less euphorigenic than heroin and similar drugs. Methadone clinics help people who previously struggled with opioid addiction manage withdrawal symptoms through the use of methadone. Other drugs, including the opioid buprenorphine, have also been used to alleviate symptoms of opiate withdrawal.

Codeine is an opioid with relatively low potency. It is often prescribed for minor pain, and it is available over-the-counter in some other countries. Like all opioids, codeine does have abuse potential. In fact, abuse of prescription opioid medications is becoming a major concern worldwide (Aquina, Marques-Baptista, Bridgeman,&Merlin, 2009; Casati, Sedefov,&Pfeiffer-Gerschel, 2012).

Hallucinogens

A hallucinogen    is one of a class of drugs that results in profound alterations in sensory and perceptual experiences ( [link] ). In some cases, users experience vivid visual hallucinations. It is also common for these types of drugs to cause hallucinations of body sensations (e.g., feeling as if you are a giant) and a skewed perception of the passage of time.

An illustration shows a colorful spiral pattern.
Psychedelic images like this are often associated with hallucinogenic compounds. (credit: modification of work by "new 1lluminati"/Flickr)

As a group, hallucinogens are incredibly varied in terms of the neurotransmitter systems they affect. Mescaline and LSD are serotonin agonists, and PCP (angel dust) and ketamine (an animal anesthetic) act as antagonists of the NMDA glutamate receptor. In general, these drugs are not thought to possess the same sort of abuse potential as other classes of drugs discussed in this section.

Medical marijuana

While the possession and use of marijuana is illegal in most states, it is now legal in Washington and Colorado to possess limited quantities of marijuana for recreational use ( [link] ). In contrast, medical marijuana use is now legal in nearly half of the United States and in the District of Columbia. Medical marijuana is marijuana that is prescribed by a doctor for the treatment of a health condition. For example, people who undergo chemotherapy will often be prescribed marijuana to stimulate their appetites and prevent excessive weight loss resulting from the side effects of chemotherapy treatment. Marijuana may also have some promise in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions (Mather, Rauwendaal, Moxham-Hall,&Wodak, 2013; Robson, 2014; Schicho&Storr, 2014).

A photograph shows a window with a neon sign. The sign includes the word “medical” above the shape of a marijuana leaf.
Medical marijuana shops are becoming more and more common in the United States. (credit: Laurie Avocado)

While medical marijuana laws have been passed on a state-by-state basis, federal laws still classify this as an illicit substance, making conducting research on the potentially beneficial medicinal uses of marijuana problematic. There is quite a bit of controversy within the scientific community as to the extent to which marijuana might have medicinal benefits due to a lack of large-scale, controlled research (Bostwick, 2012). As a result, many scientists have urged the federal government to allow for relaxation of current marijuana laws and classifications in order to facilitate a more widespread study of the drug’s effects (Aggarwal et al., 2009; Bostwick, 2012; Kogan&Mechoulam, 2007).

Until recently, the United States Department of Justice routinely arrested people involved and seized marijuana used in medicinal settings. In the latter part of 2013, however, the United States Department of Justice issued statements indicating that they would not continue to challenge state medical marijuana laws. This shift in policy may be in response to the scientific community’s recommendations and/or reflect changing public opinion regarding marijuana.

Summary

Substance use disorder is defined in DSM-5 as a compulsive pattern of drug use despite negative consequences. Both physical and psychological dependence are important parts of this disorder. Alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants that affect GABA neurotransmission. Cocaine, amphetamine, cathinones, and MDMA are all central nervous stimulants that agonize dopamine neurotransmission, while nicotine and caffeine affect acetylcholine and adenosine, respectively. Opiate drugs serve as powerful analgesics through their effects on the endogenous opioid neurotransmitter system, and hallucinogenic drugs cause pronounced changes in sensory and perceptual experiences. The hallucinogens are variable with regards to the specific neurotransmitter systems they affect.

Personal application question

Many people experiment with some sort of psychoactive substance at some point in their lives. Why do you think people are motivated to use substances that alter consciousness?

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Questions & Answers

I am wrilly interisting about big problems psihycil nature between famillys/like parents bully some childe physically , even hall life and show some kinde of heath and $inaid
Zorica Reply
same
Gaea
Never give minor issues space. Time creates space, more time more space therefore if u give a small issue more time it gets more space in your mind hence breeding stress
Andrew Reply
yes yes yes so true
Gaea
hi..my brother gets angry Everytime I say no to him for anything he ask for he don't talk to me after that.. Everytime I only have to say sorry so this time I decided not to say sorry he haven't talked to me for two weeks I am so stressed what should I do
Nush
give him so time. I think you should let him figure out his own feelings. plus, you did the right thing. he needs to know that not everyone will give him what he wants.
Gaea
Don't be stressed out . You did right thing. but remember one thing don't show angry gestures to him or don't try to make him realize by teasing or scolding. If you try to be humble and patient, he may understand his mistake on his own.
PARUL
yeah
Gaea
Hi everyone! So i'm gonna be a college freshman soon and i'm gonna major in Psychology😬 but lately i've been worrying about what job i'm gonna have after getting my Bachelor's degree. Any tips or advice?
Angelique Reply
I think minimum of a masters degree is needed in order to get a job once you do mphil and phd u gonna get licence to work as a clinical psychologist and a lot more options 😊best wishes
kitty
hi...my brother gets angry with me anytime I say no to him for anything he ask for and stop talking to me every time I only have to say sorry..so I decided this time not to say sorry he haven't talked to me at all what should I do please help me
Nush
I think it's just a matter of ego and pride.they may have a kind of feeling like if they apologize it hurts their integrity and pride. Some people never admit they are wrong and it creates stress in the other person. .some people are not empathetic and they always want to feel cared n lovedbyother
kitty
so what can we do..if you are a person who always says sorry it's a good indicator that you have such a broad mind where you are ready to solve problems n you love them even though they are bad at you..basically everyone in this whole world is selfish..humans are selfish but there are some people
kitty
like you whom God created just to solve problems and lead other people in a better way..what you should do is create a beautiful bonding bw your bro ask him softly about his problems..love him more..and eventually he may become softer and lovable
kitty
if your bro is an introvert there could be chances where he has got several problems he haven't discussed with anybody which brings out their egoistic behr and blunt nature...ask him to say about his problems..make him understand the importance of apologies and empathetic behr..and try not to end up
kitty
in a fight discussing these things...u should softly deal with it..even if other people let you down or didn't say sorry to you doesn't mean that you r wrong..u are saying sorry everytime because u have a good heart..
kitty
hope this helps🐒have a good day..good life!!😊
kitty
hi..I have a problem.i will emotional fast, every time when I will give any seminar or etc I will get so emotional and I will cry on the stage....what can I do? give me a solution please
Secular Reply
try to think why your on stage and the audience arnt, try to stay positive and maybe meditate before your performance
Raneem
well i personally suggest trying to practice a lot to other people or to yourself be4 stuff like seminars (like rehearsing), but i think you should ask other people too. also like quora is a good place to ask questions and u might get more/better feedback
Aon
i know this is a psychology app, but quora is specifically designed for asking and answering questions (also ask friends/family/etc)
Aon
Coz u scared of society so that ur confidence is very low ...
Arishfa
Take deep breaths it might sound silly but it actually works.. calms your body and mind.don not focus on things like it may go wrong...or what people will think...just prepare and present..💖
kitty
Being emotionl is nt a fault,its gud dat u atleast knw abt it.Accept ur feelings/emotions.Dis time know wht's mking u cry.Is it d topic or ur intrnl feeling abt ur performance?if it's abt prfrmnce jus know dat none s perfect & b confident in ur subjct by practicing it.Remember None can play ur role.
sailaja
i had a problem that;even though i have people around me, I'm feeling lonely
sharath
is there any online facilities to acquire Internship?
Tanvi Reply
psychology is the study of human behaviour,mental processes and experiences.It id because behaviour cant be stable over a period of time hence,it considered subjective.morover, human experiences cant be objective
Rija Reply
Is this a Statement OR a Question ? all things considered, psch has come a long way in its relatively short life. i was getting an "art" degree, when I enrolled, the Pseudo science changed and I landed a science degree instead (worth more when employers look at it)
Lyric
human behavior is fascinating if you ask me, my 1st degree was criminology/investigations, the ultimate goal of the field is control <~~ sounds terrible but in reality it's more about learning to predict the behaviors we need prevented & find a way to stop them before the next school shooting or btk
Lyric
It's needs to be tackle at young age before it heads to the teens stage then sometimes they don't wanna hear it or un cool
Derek
the suffix ology is study of
Mouze Reply
the prefix psyche is the soul
Mouze
iwillbecomeasuideideaseveryday whatareiwilldo
Vijaya Reply
?
BLYTHE
@Vjaya are you OK?
Ashantelle
u should have hope in life...its not that hard as you think...dont give up even though I don't know what you are talking about just pray..breathe...relax..eveything will be fine 💖
kitty
would you like to talk? I'm an advocate for suicide prevention .
Sonya
that's quite gud
sharath
listen buddy if you keep having those thoughts you will manifest bad energy, i recommend listening to positive subliminals for your subconscious mind, and try being positive, it doesn't have to be real just fake it until you make it
stan
ohhh a Loona here?
here a Orbit too
Vijaya I wish I could Help you-
if you're having suicidal thoughts or anything like that, please contact a suicide hotline b/c i think they could help u more more than we could 1-800-273-8255 there are probs other ones just search it
Aon
how are you feeling tho? im kinda confused by the question and i didnt even know this app had a discussion thing
Aon
please call suicide hotline though if you are having suucidal thoughts because they can really help you (definitely more than some of us could) 1-800-273-8255
Aon
please call suicide hotline though if you are having suucidal thoughts because they can really help you (definitely more than some of us could)
Aon
is anyone there
Robin
@vijaya if ur still reading comments, idrk what u meant but please do stay safe and get help if you're feeling badly
Aon
Hii🙋🏽‍♀️
Angelique
please what is the difference between illusion and hallucination
Okugo Reply
d
April
a Hallucination is not real it is a false perception however in illusion is real but it's made to be out to be something different than what it is
April
hope that helps
April
hallucination is an experience involving the apparent perception of something not present. illusion is a thing that is or is likely to be wrongly perceived or interpreted by the senses.
MH
like u see a rope and if you perceive it as a snake it's illusion
kitty
And if you feel like something crawling into your body(in reality such a thing is not happening)that is hallucination
kitty
I hope examples will make it more clear for you
kitty
and even hearing voices when no one has spoken is also hallucination
kitty
body and mind are two sides of coin
Rutika Reply
then what is the coin? maybe they're different coins?
not
Body is physical while mind is psychological
Ashantelle
Moderately retarded people have the IQ range of on the wechelser scales
Manisha Reply
body and mind are two sides of coin plz tell me answers
Rutika
maybe the soul is the coin?
Del
Body is physical while mind is psychological
Ashantelle
how being a manager we can biuld up an environment in which workplace perform well and motivate?
Attieh Reply
Allow the whole team to contribute to decisions. Be open to listen to team when decisions are not working/or are Be firm when you need to be but also be equally fair to all Recognise and reward exceptional results from individuals
Ashantelle
Be a leader and take action to resolve matters swiftly
Ashantelle
I'm confused. After my PG degree in psychology, how am I Gonna start my career? what's next?
Tanvi Reply
made a good resume, send them out, for the best to cash
ABIOLA
you apply for counseling job in schools and colleges
Dhanaraj
you might want to try getting some work in a behavioral clinic to build your resume so you can work on your career.
April
I have taken clinical psychology
Tanvi
there are lots of opportunities
Faazi
I want to know the opportunities. I can't study further due to family issues.
Tanvi
counselling in schools I think can do
Nevak
also juvenile halls might be a job lead
Total
u can work in hospitals too
Faazi
starting your career from school counseling is a good way initially.
kajal
can you start your own firm immediately after school!!
Jeffer
briefly explain contemporary psychology
Pawanjeet Reply
a
April
Uses moderate techniques to answer questions in a broad spectrum of psychology. Just think back in the day twin studies was not used in the beginningin any type of psychological study. Also, Shock treatment studies are done however today there on ethical and a different technique has been adopted
April
who is an evolutional psychology
Ruth Reply
charles darwin.
jane

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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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